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Lecture 1Topic 1PsychologydefinitionIn 1890s American Psychologist William James definedthe scientific study of mental processes People studied the processes that occur in the human mind Studying the processes of consciousness cognitionIn 1919 John Watson definedto be the scientific study of behaviourWatson stated that ifwere to be a science it would have to be the study of something observable behaviour not cognitive processesThe 2 definitions were then combined sois the scientific study of behaviour and mental processesLong past but short history People have been interested inever since cognition became possibleRoots comes from philosophy and physiology Philosophers speculate Psychologists observe Physiologists are interested in the structure and function of the body including the brain and nervous systemEarly schoolsFirst school of scientific psychology structuralism Started in Germany in the late 1800s until 1920Started by Wilhelm WundtStudied the structure of the mind not the brain or consciousnessIntrospection To look inward Wundts method for studying people They looked at themselves from an inside POVWundt had thousands of introspective from people on various subjectsKitchener only for final examFunctionalism began 1920 Still with us today it studies the functions of consciousness and was started by William JamesGestalt school of psychologyStarted in 1910 still with us today in very limited applications Started in Germany Premise of gestalt therapy Your behaviour should match your emotions and thoughts If you mask your emotions you will alienate yourselfPsychoanalysis Started in 1900s still with us today but not as powerful a theory as it was when it was first startedFreud was the singlehanded inventor of psychoanalysis1All human beings are motivated by 2 powerful primitive instincts sex and aggression Sexual and aggressive instincts rule our lives These instincts operate involuntarily subconsciouslyBehaviourism Started in 1920 still around today and was started by WatsonThis theory stated that the only thing that could be studied is objective behaviour Watson observed psychoanalysis and noted that the unconscious cannot be studied because nobody is aware of their subconscious Humanistic psychology started around 1950Interested in studying the elements that make humanbeings different from animals We are different because we are motivated by a concept called self actualization We are motivated to reach our fullest potential Have a very positive view of human nature Left to their own devices people will grow and develop to the best person that they are capable of becoming Analogy Place a seed in nutritive soil and if it receives enough water and sunlight then it will become the best plant it can Humans are similar because if we are given the correct devices then we can reach our maximum potential Whereas Freud thought that we would be the most cruel that we could beHumanists We respond to rewards and punishments that the environments hand out This is what drives our behaviourModern ApproachesBiological approachneuroscience approachStudies the underlying neurological causes of behaviourBehavioural approachCognitive approach most popular perspectiveInterested in how thoughts and expectations affect your behaviour emotionsPsychoanalytic approachPhenomenological approach you believe that no 2 people share the same experience in the same way Everyone has a unique objective experience The only way one can understand an experience is how it affects applies to them We all live in the same planet but we each live in our own worldsInterdisciplinaryEvolutionary approach psychology uses the perspective of Darwins theory of evolution Look at things in terms of how behaviour aids us in the process of evolution
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