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September 21st 2010Logical PositivismBased on theory scientists form an hypothesis or prediction StresssmokingcancerAccording to many philosophers of science we assume all hypothesis are false under proven otherwiseWe can prove the positive something exists We cannot prove the negative something does not existScientists can prove something exists They cannot prove something that does not existIn this sense science is very cynical and pessimisticThe onus is thus on the researcher to prove their theory trueWe assume the theory is wrong until proven otherwiseScientists thus state a null hypothesis exactly like the court systemScientific ProcessIf our theory is true the manipulation of the independent variable causes another variable to changeSocial ModelingHypothesis If childrenviolent mass media they will learn that violence is acceptableThe Freudian catharsis theoryexposure experiencing a drive or repressed urge will decrease the driveSeptember 23rd 2010Statistical significanceThis means that differences of a certain magnitude could not occur by chanceHow could a researcher ensure that a difference is statistically significantFexplained variableunexplained variableEnsure explained variance is largeLarger differences are more likely to be significantEnsure unexplained variance is smallIn a pretest if all individuals score the same and in a posttest they scoreThe larger the sample group the more statistically significantCase studiesOne exceptional individual or a few isare studied in detailhttpwwwdigitaljournalcomarticle297924Problems GeneralizationGroup studiesSamplingSample a small number of individuals from a populationRandomisation RepresentativeIts better to have a small but representative sample than one that is large and unrepresentativeTrue experimentsExperimental manipulation appliedProblemsSample sizeOften smallExperiment often be carried out in a controlled setting often a laboratoryIn this typical of the real world Is it possible to generalize from the results of a labbased study to the real worldQuasiExperimentsIn the social human environment the scientist cannot always manipulate the independent variableComparing one group to anotherExperimental manipulation NOT carried outExamplesdifferences between men and women differences between younger and older subjects patients vs controlsExample Extent of neglect of parentsAssumed that the differences are caused by independent variableExperimental Designs ExperimentalcontrolOne design uses control and experimental conditions or perhaps groupsRandom assignmentparticipants will be randomly assigned to either the control or experimental conditionsExperimental designsPrePostPrepost designs A problem with the use of 2 different groups experimental and control is that whatever differences we find our independent variable might be due to chanceSolution Use the same group of participants in repeated conditionsExperimental DesignsPlaceboA special design is used to examine the effects of treatmentA treatment is given to a patient The patient improves over timeWas the treatment effective Perhaps notThe placebo effectTo control for this one group of patients is given the actual drug or any other treatment and the other half is given what they think is a valid treatmentdouble blind designPlacebo effects can be extremely powerfulNo medical treatment is approved by the Ministry of Health can be used with the general public before a placebo study is carried outIn clinical psychology he placebo effect is a particularly good explanation of the supposed benefits of psychotherapy and counsellingAntidepressants effective in about 4050 of casesPlacebo effective in about 40 of the casesSurveysOne is asked to report their behaviour attitudes or beliefs typically using a survey September 28th 2010Correlation studies continued from Sept2310A change in one variable is also associated with a change in order EX Smoking and cancer poverty and crime etcCorrelationa statistical measure of the extent of a relationship between two variablesThe correlation allows one to predict scores on one variable if the scores on another variable are knownCorrelations vary from 10 to 10 Positive and negative correlationsThe larger the correlation the stronger the association The larger the correlation the better able I am to predict The lower the correlation the less able I am able to predict Note that the sign is not importantNeuronalSynaptic TransmissionThe CellDENDRITESshortbranchesprojectingfromcellbodyWithinthedendritesareembedded
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