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University of Ottawa

IntotoPsychPSY1101September62012PROLOGUEPsych is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes such as talking sleeping reading aggression etcRoots in philosophy and biologyStructuralismfocuses on the structural part of the mindEdward TitchenerIntrospection observation unified experience of the brainFunctionalismfocuses on the functions of our thoughts feelings and ideaswhat is the survival advantage of conscience behaviorWilliam JamesBehaviorismdoesnt focus on conscienceJohn B Watson psychology must focus on observable behavior goal is to predict and control behavior learning principles classical and operant conditioningPsychoanalysis the talking cureSigmund Freudthe unconscious mind sexual and aggression personality theoryHumanistic PsychologyAbraham MaslowCarl Rogers Emphasized current environment influences on our growth potential Highlighted need for love and acceptance Studied successful people Didnt believe that peoples problems were caused from the pastCognitive PsychologySpecific cells come together to unify Focuses on how the mind processes and retains information Sensation perception memoryNeuroscience Study of the brain from a biological and physical point of viewPsychodynamic how behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflictsNaturenurture issue controversy over the influence of biology and experienceNatural Selection succeeding generations will be passed the survival geneticsApplied research scientific research that aims to solve practical problemsBasic research adds to psychologys knowledge baseCognitive Neuroscience brain activity linked to thought processCounseling Psychology branch of psych that assists people with livingClinical Psychology branch of psych that studies and assesses disordersCognitive psychology brain activity linked with perception thinking etcCognitive perspective how we process and receive infoBiopsychosocial approach 1 biological influences2 Psychological influences3 socialcultural influencesJohn Locke believed that all knowledge comes from experience natureRene Descartes believed some ideas were innate nurtureChapter 1 Thinking Critically with Psychological ScienceHindsight bias I knew it all along phenomenon after something happens it seems like common senseCritical thinking smart thinking examine and asking questionsOperational definition operations used to define research variablesReplication repeating the basis of a research study in diff situationsRandom sample sample that fairly represents a population Scatterplots graphed cluster of dots representing the value of two variablesExperiment investigator manipulates one or more factorsRandom assignment randomly assigning participants to experimental and control groupsHindsight bias and over confidence often lead us to overestimate our intuitionThe scientific method theories and hypothesesObservational methodsCorrelationsExperimentationStatistical reasoningTheory1 Theories explain a variety of observations 2 They explain through an organized set of pronciples3 They offer testable predictions which are implied by the theory hypotheses
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