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Psych 1101 Final.docx

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PSYCH FINAL EXAM NOTES Chapter 1Structuralism early school of psychology introspection to explore structural elements of the mindFunctionalism school focusing on how mentalbehavioral processing function how they enable us to survive and flourishBehaviorism Psychology should be objective observable traits onlyPsychodynamics how behaviour springs from unconscious desires Behavior or mental processes Biological influences natural selection geneticsSocialcultural influences Expectations influences mediaPsychological influences learned behaviour processing interpretations emotionsSchools of PsychologyBiological Manipulation of psychological state to see what the effect on brain activity structureAttention memory decision makingManipulation stimulation lesions drugs Cognitive thLate 19 centuryRevived in 1950s now a large percentage of psychologyMemory attention decisionmaking language inference of mental states and processingBased on response patterns and performanceNo direct observationsSubdivisions cognitive neuroscience perception memory thinking languageNeuralcognitive modeling use of computers to mimic processing Behavioural 1920s Watson BF Skinner 19351990Only behaviour can be observedDeterministic determined by consequential events Social includes also industrial organizational Social environment and its effects attitudes learningHigh use of surveysSociobiologyevolution geneticsEO Wilson Richard Dawkins Social neuroscience PsychoanalyticalPsychodynamic ththS Freud late 19 early 20 centuryUnconscious behaviour is repressed to prevent from traumaClinical including humanisticphenomenological and personality Unique quality of human behaviour Unique personal experience subjective Al BarrClinical studies assesses and treats people with disorders Developmental changes in behaviour across the life spanHistoryW WundtE Titchener Introspection Structuralism Attempted to discover the basic structures of the mindconsciousness analogous to the basic elements in ChemistryFreud Role of the unconscious in determining our behaviourJames FunctionalismPragmatism What is the adaptive value or function of consciousness and emotions What is the function of our thoughts and emotionsWatsonSkinner Tenets of behaviorism Study only what is directly observable Dismissed the study of the unconscious through introspection or psychoanalysis as unscientific Overconfidence We tend to overestimate what we actually know We overestimate our abilitiesFalse consensus effect The tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and attitudes The belief that most people agree with our opinionsbeliefslikesIllusionary Correlation A perceived nonexistent correlation Helps to explain superstition Getting chilled is associated with getting coldsMaterialism laws of physical universe theory that everything is material Idealism Does not believe in physical reality of our existence Social Modeling theory People are reinforced by mimicking peers media etcFreudian Catharsis theory Exposure to experiencing a drive will decrease the drive Hindsight bias The tendency to believe after learning an outcome that one would have foreseen it Critical thinking Thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions but examines them evaluates etcTheory An explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and makes predictionsHypothesis Testable prediction implied by a theoryOperational Definition A statement of the procedures used to define research variablesStudy Types Replication repeating the essence of a research study in different situationsCase Study An observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in hope of revealing universal principles Survey Self reported behaviours of a particular group questioningPopulation Group being studied for which samples may be drawnRandom Sample Sample that is fairly representative of population Naturalistic observation Observation in naturally occurring situationsCorrelation Measure of two factors varying together Correlation coefficient From 1 to 1 Scatter plots Graphed cluster of dots represents values of two variablesExperiment Investigator manipulates independent variables to observe the effect on other behavior or mental processing dependent variableRandom assignment assigning participants to controlexperimental groups randomlyDoubleblind procedure Both research staff and participants are unaware which is placebo and controlPlacebo effect Results caused by expectations aloneExperimental group Group exposed to treatmentControl group Not exposed to treatmentIndependent variable Variable being manipulatedDependent Variable Outcome factor variable that may change in response to manipulation of independent variableQuasiexperiment Compare one group to another in situations impossible to manipulate age gender patientscontrolMeasures of Central tendency Mode Most oftenMedian Half above half belowMean AverageRange Difference between highestlowestStandard Deviation Computation of how much scores vary around the mean scoreNormal curve Symmetrical bell shaped curve that describes distribution Statistical significance How likely is it that an obtained result occurred by chance CausalityCorrelationsthe independent variable needs to be manipulated in order to prove causality Manipulation of the independent variable causes the scores on the dependent variable to changeCorrelation provides a measure of the extent of a relationship It cannot be used to infer a causeandeffect relationshipSize of correlation between10 The higher the correlation the better the predictability Culture Shared behaviour ideas attitudes and traditions one group of people and transferred through generations Chapter 2Biological psychology Neuronal and Synaptic TransmissionNeuron Nerve cell Sensory neurons Incoming information from sensory receptors to brain and spinal cord
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