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The Beginning of Psychology Subdiscipline of philosophy or biology st1 psychological experiments Wilhelm Wundt worked at the University Of Leipzig GermanyoReaction time ExperimentsStructuralismA school of psychology that deals with the structural elements of the mindEB Titchener was the first to experiment with thisIntrospection to look inward he would train people to have an experience and talk about the experience in great detail not used for very long Subjective vary from person to personObjective same from person to personFunctionalismFocuses on the functions of our thoughts feelings and ideasEvolution through Natural Selection Darwin Origin of the speciesWilliam James principle of psychology BehaviorismPsychology must focus on observable behaviourJohn WatsonClassical and Operant conditionPsychoanalysisSigmund FreudTheory of the Unconscious Mind id super ego and the egoPsychoanalysis the talking couch get people to sit on a couch and talk about their problemsHumanistic PsychologyAbraham Maslow and Carl RogersEmphasized current environmental influences on our growth potentialHighlighted need for love and acceptanceMaslow created the hierarchy of needsCognitive Psychology and NeuroscienceCognitive psychology thoughts underlie all behavioursFocuses on how we encode process store and retrieve informationNeuroscience study of the brain from a biological whats it made of and physiology Chapter 1 thinking critically with psychological scienceLast classSchools of psychologyoStructuralismoFunctionalismoBehaviourismoPsychoanalysisoHumanisticoCognitiveoNeuroscienceTodayThe scientific methodoTheories and hypothesesObservational methodsCorrelationsIntuitionUnderstanding or knowing without conscious recourse to thought observation or reasonoInstinct gut feelingProblems with intuitionDoes separation weaken or strengthen romantic attachmentHindsight biasOverconfidenceThe scientific Method TheoriesThe Big Bang Theory1Galaxies are rushing away from each other at remarkable speeds2The universe exhibits a background radiation suggestive of the remnants or a tremendous explosion3The oldest galaxies originated about 14 billion years agoTheoryExplains a variety of observationsExplain through an organized set of principlesOffer testable predictions which are implied by the theory hypothesesTheory of Evolution through natural SelectionThere is variation within population of organismsThere is competition for finite resourcesCertain variations are better than others thus increase chances of survival and reproductionThus the next and successive generations will have proportionally more offspringTestable predictionsTestable predictions that logically flow from the prinicples of the theoryCognitive theory of depressionoLow selfesteem underlies depressionoThus those suffering from depression should score lower on measures of selfesteem compared to those who are not experiencing depressive sysmptomsNeurobiological theory of depressionoNeurochemical imbalance low serotonin underlies depression
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