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Review - Midterm 2

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Kenneth Campbell

Sensation Sensory input and transmission is objective. Audition  Result of collision of air, molecules resulting in compression and expansion of air “waves”  Frequency (time between waves – determine wavelength, cause the ear drum to vibrate), Intensity (# molecules put into motion reflect strength- decibel=dB measure of sound pressure level) The auditory nerve initially synapses in the medulla of the hindbrain, where info is extracted.  Risks of hearing o Conduction hearing loss: damage to the sensitive middle ear mechanical device o Sensorieneural hearing loss: damage to the cochlea (or hair cells) Frequency (temporal) theory Place theory Volley theory -The # of times the auditory -Coded by place stimulated on A single neuron cannot fire at a nerve fires codes frequency basilar membrane rate higher than 1000 Hz. But if -Does not code intensity of - Damage will result in hearing neuron fire in a volley (like sound. loss cannons), higher freq. is coded -Ageing = deteriorate hair cells 1 | P a g e Vision: p.237  The light sensitive rods and cones are located in the back of the retina  The axons of the ganglion cells converge as the “blind spot” to form the optic nerve Light  creates neural impulse: cone/rod bipolar cell  ganglion cell  optic nerve  Three types of cones: for red, green and blue o Fewer rods than cones, rods = “night vision” 3-colour theory 2-colour theory or “Opponent-Colour theory” - Colours created through mixture of 3 - Cones synapse with red-green/blue- - All other colours created at “higher” level by yellow detectors (increase/decrease measuring optic nerves that carry each of the firing of each) coloured messages - Support: colour blindness, adaptation studies 2 | P a g e Pathway to Cortex  Half of the optic nerve crosses near the hypothalamus  OPTIC CHIASM  Optic nerve synapses at the thalamus  Left visual field NOT left eye, projects right visual cortex Feature detection: neurons in the primary visual cortex detect features: horizontal/vertical lines, lines at specific angles/lengths 3 | P a g e Pain  No “pain nerve”, any stimulus that is intense enough to cause damage will cause sensation of pain, pain is subjective Phasic pain Tonic pain -Feel immediately upon intense stimulation -Long-lasting “chronic” pain that is felt after the -Should automatically cause a switch in attention phasic pain has ceased -“Pain-killers” operate to decrease this pain  Gate control theory: the spinal cord contains a neurological “gate” that blocks pain signals/allows them to pass on to the brain. Opened by activity of pain signals traveling up small nerve fibres and is closed by activity in larger fibres/ info coming from the brain (basketball player that played whole game injured)  Selective attention: Control pain by using second stimulus (example of bottom-up processing – shaking hand when crush thumb), higher centre in brain blocks pain signal o Consciousness pain = modulated by directing attention elsewhere Perception  Our sense of vision dominates other senses – McGurk effect (video “ga” saying “ba”) Perceptual Organization  Gestalt psychology: given a cluster of sensations, the perceiver organizes them into a “whole”  Figure-ground: in order to perceive, we need to perceive a figure as being distinct drom its surroundings, the ground (ex. the impossible dog-house)  Grouping: To bring order to our sensations, we logically group stimuli together – rules of proximity, similarity, continuity, closure and connectedness Depth Perception - Depth is partially innate – visual cliff experiment - Seeing objects in 3D = estimate difference between us (2 dimensions you see) o Binocular Cues: the fact that we have two eyes provide a cue for the 3 dimension (depth) ex 3D movies, floating finger sausage o Monocular Cues  Relative size: near = big  Relative height: far = high  Interposition: near block far objects  Linear perspective: parallel lines converge at distance (train tracks)  Texture gradient: near = coarse/distinct texture 4 | P a g e  Relative brightness: near = more light, shading Misperception of Movement  Our visual cortex somehow has “learned” to distinguish between objects that trigger firing in adjacent retinal cells because eyes move vs. objects triggering adjacent retinal cells because the eyes move o Our eyes move constantly unconsciously = trigger neighbouring retinal cells  Perceptual constancy allows us to perceive an object as unchanging even though the stimuli that fall onto our receptors have changed (shape, size, lightness constancy... ex doors) Learning Classical Conditioning  Discovered by I. Pavlov: unconditioned stimulus (UCS) triggers unconditioned reflex/response (UCR). UCS = food
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