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Psychology Notes

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LecturesSaturday May 05 20121043 AM Psychology Page 1 Chapter 4Friday April 06 2012141 PMNature vs NurtureDoes nature hereditarygenetic or nurture environmentexperience guide developmentJohn LockeSaw mind at birth as blank state tabula rasaNurture was importantCharles DarwinTheory of evolutionNature was importantOpposite to John LockeBehaviorism MovementWatsonFather of behaviorismDefined behaviorismWhat is ought to bePsychology should be scientificSkinnerAll behavior is learned emphasis on nurtureInteractionism todays preferred theoryBetween hereditary and environment guides developmentGenesDNADeoxyribonucleic acidMolecule that contains genetic information templates for the production of proteinsMolecule forms double helixNucleotides C G T A connect itChromosomesStructures composed of DNAA chain of DNA23 from each parent 23 pairs or 46 in totalGenesSegments of DNAA unit of DNA in a chromosomeEach gene synthesizes a specific proteinWe have the same amount of genes as a chickenThe CellContains nucleus and cytoplasm bounded by cell membraneChromosomes and genes are in the nucleusNucleus contains the genetic codeThe genetic code is the blueprint for cell development function and divisionSo the nucleus contains the chromosomes which contains the DNAHuman Genome ProjectThe GenomeThe complete genetic instructions for making an organismDouble Helix of DNAFound by Watson and CrickContains four nucleotidesAdenineThymine Psychology Page 2 ThymineGuanineCytosineOnly pair up ATGCHuman Genome ProjectSequencing all three billion pairs of nucleotides for humansEvolutionary PsychologyStudies the evolution of behaviorsUses principles of natural selection DarwinOnly a fraction of the population of any species survives and passes on genesVariations increasing survival chances are more likely to be passed onMutationsErrors during DNA duplicationMay cause cancer or diseaseAre the source of genetic diversityBehavior GeneticsAn approachStudy of the influence of genes and environment on behaviorHow much behavior variability is due toHeredityEnvironmentInteraction between bothTwin StudiesMethod used by behavior geneticsCompare trait and behavior similarities of types of twinsIdentical TwinsDevelop from a single fertilized eggIdentical GenesFraternal TwinsDevelop from two fertilized eggsShare on average 50 of genes as do siblingsTemperament StudiesMethod used by behavior geneticistsStudy changessimilarities in temperament over developmental periods and in twin studiesTemperamentPersons largely innate style of responsiveness to external worldIncludes emotional reactivityDimensions of TemperamentActivityRhythmicityApproachWithdrawalAdaptabilityIntensityThresholdMoodDistractibilityAttention SpanPersistenceMolecular GeneticsStudy of molecular structure and function of genesApplicationsRisk assessment genetic screeningGenetic engineeringTo eliminate childhood diseases predispositions to diseases behaviorsEnhance functioning Psychology Page 3
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