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PSY 1102 comprehensive

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PSY 1102 Chapter 4Nature Nurture and Human DiversityIIntroduction study notes onlyaWhat makes us who we are Am I strictly guided by my genes or is it possible that the environment makes a difference Nature or nurturebNatureAnything geneticcNurtureEverything else that is not geneticdCombination of both are equally important in shaping who I am there is an interaction between the two Nature affects nurture and nurture affects natureeExampleTanzania very poor very beautiful 40 of the children in Tanzania have a growth stunted because of poverty and starvation Other example is child with downe syndrome poor genetics With proper nurturing they can be alot better in a better place A nurtured down syndrome child will never perform at my levelIINature ComponentaGenesOur biological blueprint notesi23 pairs of chromosomes excluding sperm and egg They carry DNA informationiiDNAthousands of genesiiiGenesBasic unit of heredity carry the instructions blond short1Single gene Monogenic diseases2Gene complexes Complex diseases3Nucleotides Adenine Guanine Cytosine and Thymine These are biochemical bases building blocks alphabet of life It is the sequence of nucleotides that determines what a gene does and does not do4AT CG5Changing one letter in the sequence changes the function of the gene exampleBlondBlind6If you think of chromosomes as books genes are the words nucleotides are the lettersivHuman Genome30 000 genes 1This number changes depending on the journal2Every single one of us is 9999 similar in terms of genome to a complete stranger3Repartition of the 001 differencea5 of the difference are racial differencesb95 are differences within a race4Nature Genetics 2004Race does not exist biologically It is a meaningless biological concept that only exists socially Standard concepts of race ought to be abandoned5Us and other organismsWith chimpanzees9598 mouse8090 bananas50 fruit fly44 daisy30bEvolutionary Psychology EP notesearn a pointiWhat is EP1Newest perspective in psychology2Heavily influenced by the theory of evolution developped by Darwin They use these ideas to explain human behaviors and human traitsaThe main motivation or goal for every single organism on Earth is to survive and to transmit its genes into the future The organism will do anything to make sure this happens Not every organism that is born will survivebNatural selectionThe survival of the fittest the physical or psychological characteristics of the organism meets the demands of the environmentcExampleIf you put Robert Pattinson in the water with a fish who will survive The fish If you throw the fish on land Robert Pattinson will survive Human beings have a preference to sweets because our ancestors who preferred sweets fruits that gave energy survived longer than those who prefer bitter foods foods were poisonous to our ancestorsdEPs are interested in behaviors that are universal and common to ManeOur capactiy to adapt as humans is what makes us so strong We cant swim underwater so we created oxygen tanks we cant fly so we created planesfExampleI have a 1 year old a 5 year old and a 40 year old family outing bring 3 boys on the boat Big wave comes and flips the boat I can only save 1 If the goal is to transmit my genes into the future 40 year old heart disease needs viagra cant transmit genes hes dead 1 year oldhigher death rate Best bet is the 5 year old to transmit genesiiApplicationSexuality1SurveysaMen tend to think more about sex want it more jerk it more more sacrifices to gain sexbMore into recreational sex onenight women prefer relational sexcStudy of Clark and Hatfield 1978iFemale and male assistants average looking sent out to campusiiWhen you see somebody attractive go to them and ask if they would go to bed with them tonightiii100 of the women said no yelling and screamingiv75 of the men said of course some said why wait until tonight lolvWhy Answer from evolutionary psychologyBoth men and women have the same goalsurvival and transmitting genes Because of biological differences they follow different strategies When women get pregnant it takes 9 months for 1 baby If we start early we can produce 24 babies One man can populate the whole Earth in a nine month period Women prefer relational sex by making they have a partner that will help the baby and herself survive The guy the more the guy sleeps around the more babies the more they transmit the genesviWhat men and women find attractiveviiGender and risktakingiiiCritique of EP1If men are uniformely loyal to their mates might we not reason that the children of these commited supportive fathers would more often survive to perpetuate their genes Mere speculation and guess work2Social consequencesUndercuts moral responsibility genetic determinism 3Attractive ladies change through time women may willingly have sex with multiple partners at the same time lol4Cultural expectations can bend genders5Social expectations shape gender differences in mate preferences In a society where men are providers and women are homemakers men strongly desire youth and domestic skill in their potential mates women seek status and earning potential in their mates Culture equalityless difference in mate preferences Sexes are far more alike that different6If women prefer relational sex how do men get recreational sex Women have multiple partners just as much as men have multiple partners7Based on a number of studies 18 societies where women are encouraged to have multiple partners they believe in a baby having multiple partnersWhich society is at an advantage Societies with multiple partners for pregnancy are less likely to miscarry880 vs 64 of children live to survive to adulthood 80women have multiple partners9Sexual revolution60 years oldcBehaviour GeneticsiIntroduction notes1Behaviour genetics is the belief that who we are is the result of an interaction between nature and nurture Interested in understanding individual differences Some are peaceful while others are more aggressive2Study heritability the degree to which genes are inherited To what extend do genes account for intelligence3Studying twins see below to study heritabilityiiTwin studies notes1Monozygotic and dizygotic mono1 sperm one egg Reasons unknown the egg splits into 2 2 babies These are 100 genetically similar always the same sex Dizygotic twins2 seperate eggs fertilized by 2 sperms Formation of 2 babies of opposite or same sex 50genetically similar as much as a brother thats not a twin2RationaleIf a trait or disease has a genetic component monozygotic twins will be more similar on that trait than dizygotic twins3ExampleAlzheimers disease If one twin has alzheimers 60 of a chance that the monozygotic twin gets it too against 30 for fraternal twins If the environment doesnt play a role the number is 100 For divorce its 55 against 16 for fraternal twins Extraversion and neuroticism also possess a genetic component4CriticismIdentical twins and fraternal twins share the same environment Results can impact from the environment instead of genetics5SolutionStudying twins reared apart Bouchard et al was a specialist in these studies The twins had the same heartrate IQ brainwaves etc Looked like the same person took the test twice monozygotic twins6CriticismSimilarities could be due to chance7SolutionAdding a control group full of strangers and compare to the experimental group Studies show that indentical twins reared apart are closer genetically to fraternal twins reared apart Twins reared apart are less similar than twins together but they are closer than fraternal twins reared apart
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