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FINAL EXAM study sheet.doc

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PSY2105 Study SheetFinal ExamCHAPTER 10 INTELLIGENCE AND SCHOOLINGPsychometric an approach to the study of intelligence that emphasizes the use of standardized tests that identify individual differences among peoplePiagets approach emphasis on similarities in childrens development forms on knowledge that all children develop and stages through which all children moveIQ test identifies not only differences but ordered differences indicates that one child is more or less intelligent than anotherThe Nature of IQ TestsFirst successful IQ test Paris 1905 by Alfred Binet and Theodore Simonpragmatic approachidentify parts of body naming familiar objects distinguishing bw abstract wordsBinets approach to measuring intelligence was based on comparing the performance of different groups of childrenMental Age indicate level of performance relative to other childrenIntelligence Quotient IQ Mental age divided by chronological age times 100 MACA x100David Wechsler Wechsler Intelligence Scale for ChildrenWISCIV ages 616 Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of IntelligenceWPPSIIII ages 2 127WISCIV verbal comprehension perceptual reasoning working memory processing speedAlanNadeen Kaufman The Kaufman Assessment Battery for ChildrenKABCII examines broad cognitive abilities including visual abilities fluid reasoning shortterm memory and longterm storage and retrievalReliability consistency or repeatability of measurementValidity does the test actually measure what it claims to measureCriterion ValidityIssues in the Study of IntelligenceCharles Spearman two factor theory of intelligence G permeates every form of intellectual functioning and is the most important determinant of individual differences on any test of intelligence S specific abilities that contribute to performance on particular tasksLouis Thurstone verbal comprehension verbal fluency number spatial visualization and perceptual speedHierarchical Model of Intelligence intelligence is organized in a hierarchical fashion with broad general abilities at the top of the hierarchy and more limited specific skills nested underneathintelligence in infancy requires different skills from those required by later intelligence variations in infant development dont relate to variations in later developmentthe older the child the higher the correlation in IQ for any given span of timesimilarity in IQ does relate to similarity in genesadopted children tend to have aboveaverage IQs adoptive parents tend to be highly motivated and adoptive homes tend to be privileged in various waysadoption studies provide evidence for both genetic and environmental effectsidentical twins are more similarsimilarity between identical twins leads to their being treated similarly not the reversedifferences in genes and differences in environment can both lead to differences in IQHeritability proportion of variance in a trait that can be attributed to genetic variance in the sample being studied An estimate of the extent to which differences among people come from differences in their genes as opposed to differences in their environments correlation between identical twinscorrelation between fraternal twins x 2PSY2105 Study SheetFinal ExamHeritability Index statistic that ranges from 011 Heritability can be calculated in different ways and the value obtained may vary depending on the method used and on the particular data that the researcher decides to emphasize 2 whatever the heritability may be the value is specific to the sample studied and cant be too generalized to other samples Depends on 2 factors 1range of environmental differences in the sample 2range of genetic differences in the samplein impoverished low socioeconomic status environments most of the variability in IQ scores is due to environment while the contribution of genes is minimal In high socioeconomic environments the effects are reversed most of the variability is due to heredityheritability doesnt tell us about possible effects of improvements in the environmentIQ tests must be periodically revised and renormedFlynn Effect James Flynn increase over time in the average level of performance on IQ testshowever high heritability may be improvements in the environment could still lead to gains in the childrens intelligenceContributions of the EnvironmentIQ isnt perfectly stable as children develop and that a particular childs IQ may go up or down by 30 or 40 points across childhoodchildren with difficult early environments were most likely to experience continued problems in intellectual adaptation the negative impact of early risk isnt limited to IQ scores but extends as well to measures of language development and performance in schoolthe most adaptive parental pattern appeared to be one that stressed stimulation and intellectual encouragement within a general context of structure and controlHOME Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment instrument for assessing the quality of the early home environment Consists of 45 items intended to tap the quality of the childs environment during the first 3 years The higher the score answering mostly yes the better is the childs development Genetic factors may also contribute to findings with the HOME Such characteristics will affect the treatment that children receive from their parents Genetic characteristics of the parents may affect both the home environment and the childs intelligence contributing to the correlation between HOME measures and childrens IQamong Canadian students parents education level and skill of requirements of the occupations held by parents contribute to mathematics and science achievement Black and Caucasians have reported an average difference of about 1015 pointsif heredity is important for individual differences in IQ its also plausible that its important for differences between ethnic groupsconsequences of living in poverty have welldocumented negative effects on childrens intellectual developmentcultural and experiential differences are other environmental factors that may be importantInterventions Abecedarian Project North Carolina 196070s age of 4 months immediate effect on IQ Project Head Start America lowincome preschool children and their families emphasizes family and community involvement failed to produce lasting improvements in childrens IQs greater success in schoolhealth statussocial competenceinvolvement in childs education Better Beginnings Better Futures 1990 Ontario government children in economically disadvantaged neighborhoods in a number of ontario cities 5 goals text page 377 its effective improvements in childrens emotional and behavioral problems as well as social skills Aboriginal Head Start First nationsInuitMetis children 119 by Canadian federal
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