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Major Concepts for Exam

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Dave Miranda

Major concepts – BehaviouristApproach ABAresearch design A Skinnerian variant of the experimental method consisting of exposing one subject to three experimental phases 1. (A)Abaseline period 2. (B) Introduction of reinforcers to change the frequency of specific behaviours 3. (A) Withdrawal of reinforcement and observation of whether the behaviours return to their earlier frequency (baseline period) ABC assessment In behavioural assessment, an emphasis on the identification of antecedent events and the consequences of behaviour, and a functional analysis of behaviour involving identification of the environmental conditions that regulate specific behaviours. Behavioural assessment The emphasis in assessment on specific behaviours that are tied to defined situational characteristics. Behaviourism An approach within psychology, developed by Watson, that restricts investigation to overt, observable behaviour. Classical conditioning A process, emphasized by Pavlov, in which a previously neutral stimulus becomes capable of eliciting a response because of its association with a stimulus that automatically produces the same or a similar response. Conditional emotional reaction Watson and Rayner’s term for the development of an emotional reaction to a previously neutral stimulus. Counterconditioning The learning (or conditioning) of a new response that is incompatible with an existing response to a stimulus. Determinism The belief that people’s behaviour is caused in a lawful scientific manner; determinism opposes a belief in free will. Discrimination In conditioning, the differential response to stimuli depending on whether they have been associated with pleasure, pain, or neutral events. Extinction In conditioning, the progressive weakening of the association between a stimulus and a response; • In classical conditioning extinction occurs because the conditioned stimulus is no longer followed by the unconditioned stimulus • In operant conditioning it occurs because the response is no longer followed by reinforcement. Fixed (schedules of reinforcement) Schedules of reinforcement in which the relation of behaviours to reinforcers remains constant. Functional analysis In behavioural approaches, particularly Skinnerian, the identification of the environmental stimuli that control behaviour. Generalization In conditioning, the association of a response with stimuli similar to the stimulus to which the response was originally conditioned or attached. Generalized reinforce In Skinner’s operant conditioning theory, a reinforce that provides access to many other reinforcers. Maladaptive response In the Skinnerian view of psychopathology, the learning of a response that is maladaptive or not considered acceptable by people in the environment. Operant conditioning Skinner’s term for the process through which the characteristics of a response are determined by its consequences. Operants In Skinner’s theory, behaviours that appear without being associated with any prior stimuli and are studied in relation to the reinforcing events that follow them. Punishment An aversive stimulus that follows a response. Reinforcer An event that follows a response and increases the probability of its occurrence. Sample approach Mischel’s description of assessment approaches in which there is an interest in the behaviour itself and its relation to environmental conditions, in contrast to sign approaches that infer personality from test behaviour. Schedule of reinforcement In Skinner’s operant conditioning theory, the rate and interval of reinforcement of responses. Shaping In Skinner’s operant conditioning theory, the process through which organisms learn complex behaviour through step-by-step processes in which behaviour increasingly approximates a final, target response. Sign approach Mischel’s description of assessment approaches that infer personality from test behaviour, in contrast with sample approaches to assessment. Situational specificity The emphasis on behaviour as varying according to the situation, as opposed to the emphasis by trait theorists on consistency in behaviour across situations. Successive approximation In Skinner’s operant conditioning theory, the development of complex behaviours through the reinforcement of behaviours that increasingly resemble the final form of behaviour to be produced. Systematic desensitization A technique in behaviour therapy in which a competing response is conditioned to stimuli that previously aroused anxiety. Target behaviours (target responses) In behavioural assessment, the identification of specific behaviours to be observed and measured in relation to changes in environmental events. Token economy Following Skinner’s operant conditioning theory, an environment in which individuals are rewarded with tokens for desirable behaviours. Variable (schedules of reinforcement) Schedules of reinforcement in which the relation of behaviours to reinforcers changes unpredictably. Major Concepts – Classical TraitApproach Ability, temperament, and dynamic traits In Cattell’s trait theory, these categories of traits capture the major aspects of personality. Cardinal trait Allport’s concept for a disposition that is so pervasive and outstanding in a person’s life that virtually every act is traceable to its influence. Central trait Allport’s concept for a disposition to behave in a particular way in a range of situations. Extraversion In Eysenck’s theory, one end of the introversion-extraversion dimension of personality characterized by a disposition to be sociable, friendly, impulsive, and risk taking. Factor analysis A statistical method for analysing correlations among a set of personality tests or test items in order to determine those variables or test responses that increase or decrease together. Used in the development of personality tests and of some trait theories. Functional autonomy Allport’s concept that a motive may become independent of its origins; in particular, motives n adults may become independent of their earlier base in tension reduction. Introversion In Eysenck’s theory, one end of the introversion-extroversion dimension of personality characterized by a disposition to be quiet, reserved, reflective, and risk avoiding. L-data In Cattell’s theory, life-record fata relating to behaviour in everyday life situations or ti ratings of such behaviour. Neuroticism In Eysenck’s theory, a dimension of personality defined by stability and low anxiety at one end and by instability and high anxiety at the other end. OT-data In Cattell’s theory, objective test data or information about personality obtained from observing behaviour in miniature situations. Psychoticism In Eysenck’s theory, a dimension of personality defined by a tendency to be solitary and insensitive at one end and to accept social custom and care about others at the other end. Q-data In Cattell’s theory, personality data obtained from questionaires. Role Behaviour considered to be appropriate for a person’s place or status in society. Emphasized by Cattell as one of a number of variables that limit the influence of personality variables on behaviour relative to situational variables. Secondary disposition Allport’s concept for a disposition to behave in a particular way that us relevan
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