Major concepts – BehaviouristApproach
A Skinnerian variant of the experimental method consisting of exposing one subject to three
1. (A)Abaseline period
2. (B) Introduction of reinforcers to change the frequency of specific behaviours
3. (A) Withdrawal of reinforcement and observation of whether the behaviours return to
their earlier frequency (baseline period)
In behavioural assessment, an emphasis on the identification of antecedent events and the
consequences of behaviour, and a functional analysis of behaviour involving identification of the
environmental conditions that regulate specific behaviours.
The emphasis in assessment on specific behaviours that are tied to defined situational
An approach within psychology, developed by Watson, that restricts investigation to overt,
A process, emphasized by Pavlov, in which a previously neutral stimulus becomes capable of
eliciting a response because of its association with a stimulus that automatically produces the
same or a similar response.
Conditional emotional reaction
Watson and Rayner’s term for the development of an emotional reaction to a previously neutral
The learning (or conditioning) of a new response that is incompatible with an existing response to
The belief that people’s behaviour is caused in a lawful scientific manner; determinism opposes a
belief in free will.
In conditioning, the differential response to stimuli depending on whether they have been
associated with pleasure, pain, or neutral events. Extinction
In conditioning, the progressive weakening of the association between a stimulus and a response;
• In classical conditioning extinction occurs because the conditioned stimulus is no longer
followed by the unconditioned stimulus
• In operant conditioning it occurs because the response is no longer followed by
Fixed (schedules of reinforcement)
Schedules of reinforcement in which the relation of behaviours to reinforcers remains constant.
In behavioural approaches, particularly Skinnerian, the identification of the environmental stimuli
that control behaviour.
In conditioning, the association of a response with stimuli similar to the stimulus to which the
response was originally conditioned or attached.
In Skinner’s operant conditioning theory, a reinforce that provides access to many other
In the Skinnerian view of psychopathology, the learning of a response that is maladaptive or not
considered acceptable by people in the environment.
Skinner’s term for the process through which the characteristics of a response are determined by
In Skinner’s theory, behaviours that appear without being associated with any prior stimuli and
are studied in relation to the reinforcing events that follow them.
An aversive stimulus that follows a response.
An event that follows a response and increases the probability of its occurrence.
Mischel’s description of assessment approaches in which there is an interest in the behaviour
itself and its relation to environmental conditions, in contrast to sign approaches that infer
personality from test behaviour. Schedule of reinforcement
In Skinner’s operant conditioning theory, the rate and interval of reinforcement of responses.
In Skinner’s operant conditioning theory, the process through which organisms learn complex
behaviour through step-by-step processes in which behaviour increasingly approximates a final,
Mischel’s description of assessment approaches that infer personality from test behaviour, in
contrast with sample approaches to assessment.
The emphasis on behaviour as varying according to the situation, as opposed to the emphasis by
trait theorists on consistency in behaviour across situations.
In Skinner’s operant conditioning theory, the development of complex behaviours through the
reinforcement of behaviours that increasingly resemble the final form of behaviour to be
A technique in behaviour therapy in which a competing response is conditioned to stimuli that
previously aroused anxiety.
Target behaviours (target responses)
In behavioural assessment, the identification of specific behaviours to be observed and measured
in relation to changes in environmental events.
Following Skinner’s operant conditioning theory, an environment in which individuals are
rewarded with tokens for desirable behaviours.
Variable (schedules of reinforcement)
Schedules of reinforcement in which the relation of behaviours to reinforcers changes
unpredictably. Major Concepts – Classical TraitApproach
Ability, temperament, and dynamic traits
In Cattell’s trait theory, these categories of traits capture the major aspects of personality.
Allport’s concept for a disposition that is so pervasive and outstanding in a person’s life that
virtually every act is traceable to its influence.
Allport’s concept for a disposition to behave in a particular way in a range of situations.
In Eysenck’s theory, one end of the introversion-extraversion dimension of personality
characterized by a disposition to be sociable, friendly, impulsive, and risk taking.
A statistical method for analysing correlations among a set of personality tests or test items in
order to determine those variables or test responses that increase or decrease together. Used in the
development of personality tests and of some trait theories.
Allport’s concept that a motive may become independent of its origins; in particular, motives n
adults may become independent of their earlier base in tension reduction.
In Eysenck’s theory, one end of the introversion-extroversion dimension of personality
characterized by a disposition to be quiet, reserved, reflective, and risk avoiding.
In Cattell’s theory, life-record fata relating to behaviour in everyday life situations or ti ratings of
In Eysenck’s theory, a dimension of personality defined by stability and low anxiety at one end
and by instability and high anxiety at the other end.
In Cattell’s theory, objective test data or information about personality obtained from observing
behaviour in miniature situations.
In Eysenck’s theory, a dimension of personality defined by a tendency to be solitary and
insensitive at one end and to accept social custom and care about others at the other end.
In Cattell’s theory, personality data obtained from questionaires. Role
Behaviour considered to be appropriate for a person’s place or status in society. Emphasized by
Cattell as one of a number of variables that limit the influence of personality variables on
behaviour relative to situational variables.
Allport’s concept for a disposition to behave in a particular way that us relevan