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University of Ottawa
Religious Studies

SRSCHAPTER 1Anthropology The study of humanityHolism The study of human societies as sympathetic sums of their parts as integrated wholesPhysical Anthropology The study of human biology and evolutionArchaeology The study of prehistoric people from the analysis of their physical and cultural remainsCultural AnthropologyThe study of contemporary human societies and their culturesParticipant Observation Research Method an anthropologist lives in a community and participates in the lives of the people under study while at the same time making objective observationsForaging BandsSmall communities that subsist by hunting fishing and gathering wild plant foodsHorticultureThe use of civilized domesticated plants without the use of fertilizers plows irrigation and other agricultural technologiesPastoral Nomads Societies that subsist primarily by herding domesticated animalsSmallScale Describes relatively small communities that practice foraging herding or technologically simple horticultureHuman Universals Characteristics that are found in all human societiesEthnography The descriptive study of human societiesEthnographers A person who produces an ethnographyEthnographicPresent Speaking or writing about cultures in the present tense although what is described might no longer existCultural Areas A geographical area in which societies share many cultural traitsDivination Supernatural techniques for obtaining information about things unknown including things that will happen in the futureEtic Analysis The study of a society using concepts that were developed outside of the cultureEmic Analysis The study of society through the eyes of the people being studiedCultural RelativismEthnocentrism Using ones own culture as the basis for interpreting and judging other culturesModernity A philosophical movement based on ideas of rationality objectivity reason and science as the means of gaining knowledge truth and progressPostmodernism An emphasis on subjectivity over objectivity and a tendency toward reflexivity or selfconsciousness all knowledge is seen as being a human construction that scholars must seek to destructHuman beliefs and behaviours of a society that are learned transmitted from Culture one generation to the next and shared by a group of peopleSymbols A shared understanding about the meaning of certain words attributes or objects something that stands for something elseOperant Definition A definition in which we define our terms so that they are observable and measurable and therefore can be studiedAnalytic Definition A definition that focuses on the way religion manifests itself or is expressed in a cultureAnimism A belief in spirit beings Edward B TylorFunctional Definitions A definition that is based on the role that religion plays in
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