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BIO152H5 Study Guide - Final Guide: Old Testament, Uniformitarianism, Carl Linnaeus

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Fiona Rawle
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BIO 152 Fall 2014 Final Exam Study Guide: Chapter 22
Chapter 22: Darwin and Natural Selection
1. Describe how the Darwinian revolution challenged traditional views of a young Earth
inhabited by unchanging species.
Aristotle viewed species as fixed and arranged them on a Scala nature. Old testament
holds that species were individually designed by god and therefore perfect
Linnaeus interpreted organismal adaptations as evidence creator had designed species
for specific purpose and developed naming system, taxonomy
Curvier developed Paleontology, the study of fossils, remains or traces of past
organisms usually found in sedimentary rock which appears in layers of strata. He
advocated catastrophism, speculating that each boundary between strata represents a
Lyell perceived changes in earth’s surface result from slow continuous actions still
operating today. His principle of uniformitarianism states that the mechanisms of change
are constant over time
Lamarck hypothesized that species evolve through use and disuse of body parts and
inheritance of acquired characteristics
2. Describe how descent with modification by natural selection explains the adaptations of
organisms and the unity and diversity of life.
Darwin unsuccessfully studied medicine then theology at Cambridge and took unpaid
position as naturalist for a five year around the world voyage where he collected
specimens of south American plants and animals and published origin of species after
Wallace developed similar theory
Descent with modification refers to view that all organisms are related through decent
from an ancestor that lives in the past
Observation 1: members of a population often vary in inherited traits
Inference 1: individuals whose inherited traits give them a higher probability of surviving
and reproducing in a given environment tend to leave more offspring than other
Observation 2: all species produce more offspring than the environment can support
and many of these offspring fail to survive and reproduce
Inference 2: this unequal ability of individuals to survive and reproduce will lead to the
accumulation of favourable traits in the population over generations
Natural selection: summary
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