[BIO206H5] - Final Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (43 pages long)

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29 Nov 2016
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BIO206H5
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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BIO206H5 F
LEC 1
Intro:
Escherichia coli. Prokaryotic bacterial cell; single-celled organism. We
know the most about this prokaryote. This one is ready to undergo cell
division. It’s about to cut itself thru binary fission. It’s been estimated that
there are approx. 10^30 single-celled organisms, and they represent the
vast majority of the diversity of the earth.
As said, these organisms go thru cell division. In a day you can have 2^72
doubles with this cell! Think of how massive that number is. This is one of
the reasons why pathogenic microorganisms are so effective. They can
rapidly increase their numbers, as they do this they produce toxins, which
is where all the problems (pathology) comes from.
The power of a cell:
You can see the nucleus is getting ready to divide and separate into two.
This is a human egg. We all used to look like that at one point. Unlike e-
coli, tho, we become a mutli-cellular organism. We are complex, multi-
cellular organisms. One cell has gone under NUMERUOUS additions. We
are distinct from e. coli in that not only are we a large macroscopic
organism, but we also have many genetic attributes (our organ systems,
our facial features, etc) that are encoded in this single cell! What makes us
different from E coli? Why do we have a different way of growth and
survival? How do cells carry out their functions?
CENTRAL DOGMA OF MOLECULAR Biology
Every living organism that we know undergoes 3 fundamental processes:
1. DNA replication
2. Transcription
3. Translation
How is DNA transcribed from mRNA? mRNA translates into protein. Once
we have these proteins, they don’t do much until they’re in the right
compartment. The compartmentalization is an essential part of complex
eukaryotic organisms. Organelles depend very much on protein
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BIO206H5 F
complement. This depends on trafficking pathway. These are the
controlling mechanisms that makes us different. We have a complex
pathway of allocation.
CELL BIOLOGY
What is life? How does it work?
Systems within a cell that include relationship between DNA, RNA, protein
synthesis. We can manipulate DNA, RNA, protein. There needs to be a
way in which genetic info is passed from one generation to the next
sustainability of life. Modern biology cannot be understood without
understanding evolution. It’s not a coincidence that the DNA in E. coli and
DNA in our cells are chemically identical (common ancestor). Biochem is
concerned with the mechanisms of reaction of biologically important
molecules.
CHARACTERISTICS OF LIFE
- Growth
- Biochemical metabolism
- Self-reproduce (create yourself & pass it to next generation)
- Response to stuff (interact w environment and modify your gene
expression based on that environment stimuli)
- Most cells demonstrate internal or external movement within their
environment
CELL THEORY
Cell is the smallest unit of life. All living things are made of cells. New cells
arise only from pre-existing onesthis is a consequence of the success of
living organisms.
THE CELL
What’s inside a cell? A lip-membrane bound unit filled w a concentrated aq
solution containing lots of stuff. If it displays the characteristics of life, it’s a
cell.
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