BIO206H5 Final: bio206 lec notes

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14 Feb 2017
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BIO206 LEC NOTES
1
Lecture 1
- cell division occurs until they run out of food and then starve to death + as they increase they release
toxins that cause illnesses
- Central dogma of molecular bio
o Replication (DNA synthesis)
o Transcription (RNA synthesis)
o Translation (Protein synthesis)
- Molecular bio
o Interactions bw various systems of a cell, including interrelationship od DNA, RNA, Protein
synthesis and protein trafficking + how all these interactions were regulated
- Cell theory
o Cell=smallest unit of life
o All living things made of cells
o New cells arise from preexisting cells (consequence of success in reproduction)
- Cell
o Fundamental unit of life
o Liquid membrane bound unit filled with [] aq solution containing
Proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, carbs, organic + inorganic ions, organelles + water
o Display 5 characteristics of life
o Central dogma = unifying principal that unites all life forms
o Cells are constrained by resources and physical properties of molecules that make up the cell
- 2 classifications of cell (major)
o Prokaryotes (cell with no defined nucleus)
Bacteria
Lack nuclei, membrane bound organelles
Smaller
Structure
Plasma membrane, cell wall, cytoplasm, nucleoid, ribosomes, internal membrane,
flagella
o Eukaryotes (cell with true nucleus)
Protista, fungi, animal, plants
Complex
Larger
Structure
Nucleus, ER, Golgi apparatus, vesicles, peroxisomes, mitochondria, membrane,
cell wall + cytosol ( [] aq gel, ribosomes, cytoskeleton)
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BIO206 LEC NOTES
2
- estimate relatedness
o nucleotide sequence encoding of 16S or 18S rRNA
more divergent the sequence the more distantly related
- CELLULAR FUNCTIONS COMPARTMENTALIZED IN EUKARYOTES
o mRNA synthesis in nucleus
o mRNA moved into cytoplasm (via nuclear pore)
o synthesis of protein
- Structure of DNA = function
- All macromolecules = polymers
o DNA = linear polymer of deoxyribonucleotides
o RNA = linear polymer of ribonucleotides
- NucleoTides
o Pentose sugar (5C) + N base + Phosphate
Ribose or deoxyribose
A,C,G,T/U
Phosphate group
o Sugars and base linked by N=glycosidic bond
Purines = C1-N9
Pyrimidine
C1-N1
o Phosphate groups are linked to each other through
phosphoanhydride bond
- NucleoSide
o Pentose sugar + N base
NO phosphate group
- Nitrogenous bases
o Purine (A,G)
o Pyrimidine (C,T/U)
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BIO206 LEC NOTES
3
Lecture 2
Levene
DNA contains deoxyribose + N bases + phosphate in equal proportions
Chargaff
#A= #T + #G= #C
Franklin + Wilkins
X-ray diffraction shows DNA structure in double helix
Watson + Crick
Deduced the double helical structure of DNA
- Polymerization = 3’ 5’ phosphodiester
bonds
o Phosphate and sugar
- 5’3’ polymer polarity
o polymerication progresses 5’ – 3’
o phosphodiester bond = 3’ – 5’
- Writing DNA/RNA sequence
o Convention to write 5’-3’
o One strand
o Complementarity assumes
5’-CCGAATTGT-3’
- Native state of DNA
o Two antiparallel
o Chemical polarity
o Polynucleotide chains
o Double helix
o Sugar phosphate backbone
o Interior bases
- DNA structure
o Double strand of nucleotides
Twisted helically (bond angles)
10 bps per complete turn
1 turn = 3.4nm
grooves
H bonds between nucleotide
bases
- Base pairing
o Complementary bp (bases lie flat)
Purine +pyrimidine
AT = double h bonds
GC = triple H bonds (more E to break therefore more heat stable)
o Purine-pyrimidine base pair bc only this combo fits in double helix
Purine-purine = not enough space
Pyrimidine-pyrimidine = too much space
- Only 4 bases
o 4^n (n = # bases in nucleotide chain
Type
A-DNA
B-DNA (MOST COMMON)
Left or right handed
RIGHT
RIGHT
Length + width
SHORT + BROAD
LONGER + THINNER
Other info
- B-DNA
o Has minor (103 degrees) + major grooves (257 degrees)
Because of asymmetrical sugar attachment
- PROTEIN CAN BIND IN GROOVES
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