wages, performance criteria, and working conditions. Once approved, significant changes
to job descriptions may have been negotiated.
•Training, Development, and Career Management
oBy comparing the knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) that employees bring to the job
with those that are identified by job analysis, managers can determine gaps that require
training programs. Having accurate information about jobs also means that employees can
prepare for future advancements by identifying gaps between their current KSAs and
those specified for the jobs to which they aspire.
oJob analysis is useful for ensuring that all of the duties having to be done have actually
been assigned and for identifying areas of overlap. Also, having an accurate description of
each job sometimes leads to the identification of unnecessary requirements, areas of
conflict or dissatisfaction, and/or health and safety concerns that can be eliminated
through job redesign. Such redesign may increase morale and productivity and ensuring
compliance with human rights and occupational health and safety regulations.
Steps in Job Analysis
•Step 1 :
oIdentify the use to which the information will be put, since this will determine the
types of data that would be collected and the techniques used. Some data collection
techniques – such as interviewing the employee and asking what the job entails and what
his or her responsibilities are - are good for writing job descriptions and selecting
employees for the job. Other job analysis techniques provided numerical ratings for each
job, which can be used to compare jobs for compensation purposes.
•Step 2 :
oReview relevant background information, such as organization charts, process charts,
and existing job descriptions. A process chart shoes the flow of inputs to and outputs
form the job under study. (In Figure 4.4, the inventory control clerk is expected to receive
inventory from the suppliers, take requests for inventory from the two plant managers,
provide requested inventory to those managers, and give information to the plant
accountant on the status of in-stock inventories.)
•Step 3 :
oSelect the representative position and jobs to be analyzed. This selection is necessary
when there are many incumbents in a single job and when a number of similar jobs are to
be analyzed because it would be too time-consuming to analyze every position and job.
•Step 4 :
oNext, analyze the jobs by collecting data on job activities, required employee
behaviours, working conditions, and human traits and abilities needed to perform the job,
and using one or more of the job analysis techniques explained later in this chapter.
•Step 5 :
oReview the information with job incumbents. The job analysis information should be
verified with any workers performing the job and with the immediate supervisor. This
corroboration will help to confirm that the information is factually correct and complete,
and it can also help gain the employees’ acceptance of the job analysis data.
•Step 6 :
oDevelop a job description and job specification, which are the two concrete products of
the job analysis.
Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Information:
Various qualitative and quantitative techniques are used to collect information about the duties,
responsibilities, and requirements of the job; the most important ones will be discussed in this section. In