FAH205H5 Midterm: Midterm Terms

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Fine Art History (FAH)

Chapter 1 • relative dating o archaeological process of determining relative chronological relationships among excavated objects • absolute dating o a method, especially in archaeology, of assigning a precise historical date at which, or span of years during which, an object was made. Based on known and recorded events in the region, as well as technically extracted physical evidence (such as carbon -14 disintegration). See also radiometric dating, relative dating • post and lintel o an architectural system of construction with two or more vertical elements (posts) supporting a horizontal elements (lintel) • corbelling o an early roofing and arching technique in which each course of stone projects slightly beyond the pervious layer ( a corbel) until the uppermost corbels • ridgepole o a longitudinal timber at the apex of a roof that supports the upper ends of the rafters • wattle and daub o a wall construction method combining upright branches, woven with twigs (wattles) and plastered or filled with clay or mud (daub) • thatch o plant material such as reeds or straw tied over a framework of poles to make a roof, shelter, or small building • megalithic o a large stone used in some prehistoric architecture • capstone o the final, topmost stone in a corbeled arch or vault, which joins the sides and completes the structure • dolmen o a prehistoric structure made up of two or more large upright stones supporting a large, flat, horizontal slab or slabs • cairn o a pile of stones or earth and stones that served both as a prehistoric burial site and as a marker for underground tombs • passage grave o a prehistoric tomb under a cairn, reached by a long, narrow, slab-lined access passageway or passageways • vault o an arched masonry structure that spans an interior space. Barrel or tunnel vault: an elongated or continuous semicircular vault, shaped like a halfcylinder. Corbeled vault: a vault made by projecting courses of stone; see also under corbel. Groins or cross vault: a vault created by the intersection of two barrel vaults of equal size which creates four side compartments of identical size and shape. Quadrant vault: a half-barrel vault. Rib vault: a groin vault with robs (extra masonry) demarcating the junctions. Ribs may function to reinforce the groins or may be purely decorative • henge o a circular areas enclosed by stones or wood posts set up by Neolithic peoples. It is usually bounded by a ditch and raised embankment • mortise and tenon o a method of joining two elements.Aprojecting pin (tenon) on one element fits snugly into a hole designed for it (mortise) • composite pose o combining different viewpoints within a single representation • relief sculpture o a three- dimensional image or design whose flat background surface is carved away to a certain depth, setting off the figure. Called high or low (base-) relief depending upon the extent of protection of the image from the background. Called sunken relief when the image is carved below the original surface of the background, which is not cut away • sculpture in the round o three-dimensional sculpture that is carved free of any background or black • memory image o those generalized elements that reside in our standard memory of a human head • abstract o of art that does not attempt to describe the appearance of visible forms but rather to transform them into stylized patterns or to alter them in conformity to ideals Chapter 2 • stele o a stone slab placed vertically and decorated with inscriptions or reliefs. Used as a grave marker or commemorative monument • hierarchic scale o the use of differences in size to indicate relative importance. For example, with human figures, the larger the figure, the greater her or his importance • cuneiform o an early form of writing with wedge-shaped marks impressed into wet clay with a stylis, primarily used by ancient Mesopotamians • stylus o an instrument with a pointed end (used for writing and printmaking), which makes a delicate line or scratch.Also: a special writing tool for cuneiform writing with one pointed end and one triangular • ziggurat o In ancient Mesopotamia, a tall stepped tower of earthen materials, often supporting a shrine • inlay o to set pieces of a material or materials into a surface to form a design • registers o a device used in systems of spatial definition. In painting, a register indicates the use of differing ground lines to differentiate layers of space within an image. In relief sculpture, the placement of self-contained bands of reliefs in a vertical arrangement • votive figures o an image created as a devotional offering to a deity • cylinder seal o a small cylindrical stone decorated with incised patterns. When rolled across soft clay or wax, the resulting raised pattern or design served in Mesopotamian and indie Valley cultures as a identifying signature • lost-wax casting o a method of casting metal, such as bronze.Awax gold is covered with clay and plaster, then fired, thus melting the wax and leaving a hollow form. Molten metal is then pored into the hollow space and slowly cooled. When the hardened clay and plaster exterior shell is removed, a solid metal form remains to be smoothed and polished • portal o a grand entrance, door, or gate, usually to an important public building, and often decorated with sculpture • low relief o a three-dimensional image or design whose flat background surface is carved away to a certain depth, setting off the figure. Called high or low (base-) relief depending upon the extent of projection of the image from the background. Called sunken relief when the image is carved below the original surface of the background, which is not cut away • palace complex o a group of buildings used for living and governing by a ruler and his or her supporters, usually
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