LIN 204 Final Review

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Michelle Troberg

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LIN 204, English Grammar – Final Review Package Chapter 7 – Syntax Sentence can be divided into subject (NP) and predicate (VP). Phrases: sequences of words that form a syntactic unit Constituents: parts or components from which sentences are structured -Predicate Constituents: -NP -MVP (will be discussed in detailed) -ADJP -ADVP, to make sure if it is an ADVP; try to substitute a related Adv. and move it after the V. -PP=Prep. + NP; can function as Adv. or Adj. -Tree Diagram for the Whole Sentence On Sunday, the children across the street were very happy when I invited them to jump in the sprinkler. Every sentence has these four S parts NP VP the children PP MVP ADJP SC across the street when I were on Sunday very happy invited… Notice that there are actually two PP in the sentence, [across the street] and [on Sunday]. How to tell whether the PP is under NP or VP? Look at the meanings. [across the street] describes where the children’s were [on Sunday] describes when the event (Verb) happened -Main Verb Phrase: A MVP always consists of MV and Aux. (if any) MV has to be a finite verb: verbs that can be inflected for tense -The Basic Structure of the MVP MVP AUX. MV TENSE Modal HAVE BE present/ {-en} {-ing} past -Time, Tense and Aspect: In English, there are only two tenses: present and past, no future tense Time: we have past, present and future Aspect: we have progressive (on going), perfect (done) and perfect-progressive 1. Simple tenses - Simple present - Can express a future, present time - Can also express a habitual action - Simple past - To express a future time? - present tense + adverb (tomorrow) - modal “will” - be going to 2. Perfect tenses - Present perfect - express a single event that was completed in the immediate past - a single event began in the past and continues into present - Past perfect B A NOW Past perfect Simple past - Future perfect NOW A B Future perfect Simple present 3. Progressive Forms - present - past - future 4. Perfect – Progressive Forms - Present A NOW Present perfect-progressive - Past A B NOW Past perfect-progressive Simple past - Future NOW A B Future perfect-progressive Simple present -AUX. and Their Meanings: - Modal shows the speaker’s attitude toward what he/she is saying - Modal always takes present tense - Memorize the table on Page 197 -Indicative, Imperative and subjunctive mood: - In daily conversation and writings, we use indicative mood mostly - Imperative: strong command - Subjunctive: contrary to the facts or that follow certain verbs expressing wishes or weak command; when you see the following, you may need to consider using subjunctive mood: - If + past tense - wish + past tense - command like Chapter 5,6 – Structure-Class Words Structure-Class Words are also structure words or function words; they have grammatical meaning. -Determiner Determiner is a structure word that precedes and modifies Noun -Difference between determiner and adj. -① determiner has no derivational suffix -② determiner has no comparative or superlative form -③ determiner doesn’t fit in the frame sentence: The man seems very . -Different types of determiners: -Articles (definite (the), indefinite (a/an)) -Demonstratives -Numbers (cardinal, ordinal) -Quantifiers -Indefinites -Possessive *Notice that definite article, demonstratives and possessives imply definiteness. Possessives, indefinites, demonstratives and cardinal numbers can function as pronoun. -Pronoun Pronouns are NP substitutes Antecedent is the NP that gives the pronoun meaning -Different types of pronouns: -Personal (subject, object); **hypercorrection -Reflexive -Reciprocal -Indefinite; **number agreement problem -possessive pronoun -demonstrative -cardinal number -Qualifiers Qualifiers usually precede adj. or adv. to increase or decrease the quality signified by the words that they modify -Difference between qualifier and adv. -① qualifier cannot be qualified -② qualifier has no comparative or superlative form -③ qualifier doesn’t fit in the frame sentence: The man told his story . -④ qualifier has no mobility -Aux. Aux. can either signal that the MV is coming or serve as a substitute for the VP -Different types of Aux.: -Modal -Have
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