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PHL105Y5 Study Guide - Final Guide: Descriptive Knowledge, Ontological Argument

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Diana Raffman
Study Guide

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The answers are from my notes but I dont really have answer for all the questions.
Orange Highlights
Correspondence theory of truth claims that a belief is true if it asserts a
proposition that corresponds to the facts. Having said that, correspondence theory is
not an adequate theory of truth. The reason is, there are infinite numbers of facts in
the world, and yet, there are also infinite numbers of negative facts. We cannot really
know what facts we have because an event is not a fact and even an object is not a
fact as well. So, it is going to be hard for us to have a proposition that corresponds to
the facts if we dont actually know the facts.
Descartes concludes that one thing that he is certain of is his own
existence. Descartes is convinced that this is indubitable even though in Meditation
I, he has doubted his senses. Descartes basis on for this claim is, when he thinks,
when he doubts, when he perceives, or to be deceived, he must exists because he
cant do any mental activity unless he exists. Descartes is now deceived in
everything except for his own existence. He believes that he exists because each time
he pronounces or mentally conceives, I am, I exist, it is necessary true.
The three conditions involved that knowledge is justified true belief are:
knowledge by acquaintance, competence/skill knowledge, and
propositional knowledge. Knowledge by acquaintance requires more than a
description. You have to be really familiar with someone. An example is, I know my
friend John very well. Competence or skill knowledge is easier to prove than the
other two because it only involves skills. It is usually called object knowledge.
Example, I know how to swim. Propositional knowledge involves facts and there
are proofs for it. Example, I know that UTM is in Mississauga.
Black Highlights
Principle of Sufficient Reason is saying that there must be an explanation
of the existence of any being, and of the existence of any positive fact.
Clarke argues for the existence of God using the Principle of Sufficient Reason.
First, he explains the existence of any being by saying that every being that exists or
ever did exist is either contingent being or necessary being. Second, he then explains
the existence of any positive fact by saying that not every being can be a contingent
being. Therefore, there exists a necessary being, called God.
Genuine option, according to James, is when it is forced, living, and
momentous. Living hypothesis is when the options that you are giving to a specific
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