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University of Toronto Mississauga
Political Science

Environmentalism Liberalists o Increased cooperation on environmental issues o Complex and growing network of international institutions and regimes is evolving give us the capacity to deal with environmental problems while the world economy continues to grow o States have shown a willingness to reach agreements on water managements, pollution, fishing disputes, without resorting to military force Realists o Utilizable resources o Increase source of conflict in the future o Environmental degradation will not alter the nature of world politics but lead to increased conflict and wars between states and people in environmentally stressed regions o Resource wars over oil, water & arable land o Environment prominent feature of political power Ex. China & India Increased bargaining power world frightened of global environmental impact of mass industrialization Leverage on future negotiations on pollution treaties Marxists o Deforestation and soil degradation part of a process of capitalism exploitation in the periphery o No final answer to environmental problems until exploitative elites that dominate the capitalist system are overthrown and capitalism itself is replaced Eco-feminist www.notesolution.com o Destruction of habitat instruction of patriarchy Globalization - Substantial economic growth since 1945 - The Gap between the wealthy and the poor never greater - Poor nations are burdened w external debt, poverty, unsustainable agricultural and industrial process -In addition the poverty the citizens are living in sickening conditions - The divergence of wealth is central idea in Global Pol. - However, Convergence can be seen between North America and Europe - Globalization is based on liberal economic theory Realists o see the world as a struggle between states for preservation and power o IPE economic nationalism will prevail , states will cooperate in the worldeconomy when it is in their interests to do so , but frequently they will be in conflict or competition o Governments are primarily concerned with the health & security of the nation state itself economic power is simply a means of maintaining or increasing the power o Maintenance of protectionalists trade barriers the provision of subsides & tax benefits to crucial industries and economic sectors , the disagreement between states in world and regional trade talks and the existence of trade ware ( Ex. US & European Union Steel Dispute 2004 ) as evidence that the world economy is a competitive arena in which states pursue their interests o Realists argue we can expect only limited progress from world and regional trade talks from financial institutions & trade organizations www.notesolution.com
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