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Lecture notes and notes from book (Fundamentals of Human Neuropsychology)

2 Pages
108 Views

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY318H5
Professor
Melissa Holmes

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Detect changes in electrical activity of neurons
|
Electrical recording
{
Induce changes in the electrical activity of the brain
|
Brain stimulation
{
Sensitive to density of different parts of the brain, ventricles, nuclei and pathways
|
X-ray imaging
{
|
Dynamic imaging
{
Variety of modern brain-imaging methods
{
Uses a large magnet and a specific radiofrequency pulse to generate a brain signal that
produces an image
{
Magnets -1.5 teslas in strength
{
High resolution, voxel size better than 1mm3
{
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
{
Dynamic Brain Imaging
Slide 5
Slide 6
Slide 7
Page 153
{
The Physics of MRI
When horizontal magnetic field is turned off, protons relax
{
T1-current detector having orientation horizontal to vertical axis of protons' initial
alignment measure time it takes protons to "right" themselves from tipped position and
realign with magnetic field
{
Useful for detecting lesions
|
T2-second detector having orientation perpendicular to that of first detector measure rate
at which protons lose synchrony about the horizontal axis after the magnetic pulse is turned
off
{
Relaxation described by
{
The Physics of MRI
Slide 10
As neurons become active, they increase their use of oxygen and increase blood flow to the
area
{
Before neural activation deoxyhemoglobin and oxyhemoglobin are about equal, after the
amount of oxyhemoglobin is higher
{
The different relaxation curves for protons in oxygenated and unoxygenated blood provides
means for obtaining a functional image
{
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)
{
Dynamic Brain Imaging
Slide 12
Can display changes in neural activity
|
No subtraction process
|
High spatial resolution
|
No averaging across subjects
|
Advantages
{
Poor temporal resolution
Disadvantages
{
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)
{
Dynamic Brain Imaging
Imaging the Brain's Activity (cont'd)
January-31-10
12:44 PM
PSY295 -Neuropsychology Page 1
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Description
ImagingtheBrainsActivity(contd) January-31-10 12:44PM DynamicBrain Imaging { Varietyofmodernbrain-imagingmethods { Electricalrecording Detectchangesinelectricalactivityofneurons { Brainstimulation Inducechangesintheelectricalactivityofthebrain { X-rayimaging Sensitivetodensityofdifferentpartsofthebrain,ventricles,nucleiandpathways { Dynamicimaging Recordandmanipulateongoingchangesinbrainactivity,includingtheelectrical activityofcells,biochemicalevents,differencesinglucoseconsumptionandtheflow ofbloodtovariousregions { MagneticResonanceImaging(MRI) { Usesalargemagnetanda specificradiofrequencypulsetogenerateabrainsignalthat producesanimage { Magnets-1.5 teslasinstrength 3 { Highresolution,voxelsizebetterthan1mm Slide5 Slide6 Slide7 ThePhysicsof MRI { Page153 ThePhysicsof MRI { Whenhorizontalmagneticfieldisturnedoff,protonsrelax { Relaxationdescribedby { T 1 current detectorhavingorientationhorizontaltoverticalaxisofprotonsinitial alignme
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