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EXAM Review Key Terms for Chapters 1 - 16 as well as some main ideas for each chapter

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Dax Urbszat

Chapter 1The Evolution of PsychologyKEY TERMSapplied psychology branch of psychology concerned with everyday practical problems Contains of clinical counseling educationalschool and industrialorganizational psychologybehaviour any overt observable responses or activity by an organismbehaviourism theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study only observable behaviourclinical psychologybranch of psychology concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems and disorders critical thinking the use of cognitive skills and strategies that increase the probability of a desirable outcomecognition mental processes involved in acquiring knowledgeculture refers to the widely shared customs beliefs values norms institutions and other products of a community that are transmitted socially across generations empiricism argument that knowledge should be acquired through observationethnocentrism tendency to view ones own group as superior to others and as the standard for judging the worth of foreign ways evolutionary psychology examines behavioural process in terms of their adaptive value for members of a species over the course of many generationsfunctionalism based on belief that psychology should investigate the function or purpose of consciousness rather than its structure humanism theoretical orientation that emphasizes the unique qualities of humans especially their freedom and their potential for personal growthintrospection careful systematic selfobservation of ones own conscious experiencenatural selection heritable characteristics that provide a survival or reproductive advantage are more likely than alternative characteristics to be passed on to subsequent generations and thus come to be selected over timepositive psychology uses theory and research to better understand the positive adaptive creative and fulfilling aspects of human existence3 areas of interestpositive subjective experiences positive emotions happiness love hopepositive individual traits personal strengths and virtuespositive institutions and communities how societies can foster civil discourse strong families healthy work env and supportive neighbourhood communitiespsychiatry branch of medicine concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems and disorders psychoanalytic theoryattempts to explain personality motivation and mental disorders by focusing on unconscious determinants of behaviourpsychology science that studies behaviour and the physiological and cognitive processes that underlie it and it is the profession that applies the accumulated knowledge of this science to practical problems SQ3R study system designed to promote effective reading which includes 5 steps survey question read recite reviewstimulus any detectable input from the environment structuralism Edward Titchnerbased on the notion that the task of psychology is to analyze consciousness into its basic elements and investigate how these elements are relatedtestwiseness ability to use the characteristics and format of a cognitive test to maximize ones scoretheory system of interrelated ideas used to explain a set of observationsunconscious contains thoughts memories and desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but nonetheless exert great influence in behaviour KEY PEOPLESigmund Freud psychoanalysis treating people troubled with psychological problems irrational fears obsessions and anxieties work with patients and own selfexploration made him realize of the existence of the unconscious psychological disturbances are largely caused by personal conflict existing at the uncon level people arent masters of their own minds behaviour is greatly influenced by how people cope with their sexual urgesstudied motivation personality and abnormal behaviourG Stanley Hall studied with Wundt established Americas first lab in psych launched Americas first psych journalhelped establish APA American Psychological Association and was first presidentDonald Hebb established importance between physiological and neuropsychological perspectivespaved the way for recent cognitive revolution in psychology emphasized the importance of the brain locus of behaviour repeated stimulation leads to the development of cell assembliesfacilitates behaviorWilliam James functionalism believed psychology is deeply embedded in a network of cultural and intellectual influencesconsciousness is an important characteristic of our species consciousness consist of a continuous flow of thoughtsstream of consciousness Brenda Milner contributes to our understanding of memory one of the founders of neuropsychology in Canada Carl Rogers humanistic movement human behaviour is governed mainly by each individuals sense of selfself conceptanimals lackMalsow in order to fully understand human behaviour psychologists must take into account the fundamental human drive toward growth humans have a basic need to continue to evolve as human beings and to fulfill their potentialMartin Seligman discovered epiphany believed psych was excessively and needlessly negative in its approachpositive psychology movement psych gave too much attention to pathology weakness damage and ways to heal suffering Lazarus argued that dividing psych into positive and negative is an oversimplification and that the line between is unclear BF Skinner behaviourism believes that internal mental events are private events that shouldnt be given any special status enviournmental factors mould behaviour operant conditioning organisms tend to repeat responses that lead to positive outcomes and avoid those that lead to negative outcomesbehaviour is fully governed by external stimulifree will is an illusion John B Watson founded behaviourism focus on behaviour that is directly observable mental events are private eventsbehaviour is governed by env Ivan Pavlovclassical conditioningWilhelm Wundt combines disciplines of philosophyphysiology 1879 psychologys date of birth1881 first journal devoted to publishing research on psych
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