Methods in Adult aging - in depth summary of concepts

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Giampaolo Moraglia

Looking at the designs of experiments: Metatheories Research design Ethics Metatheories= beyond many individual theories are joined together to make up a set of interconnected statements. It is an insight into a broad area, and drives theory developments. They will influence many disciplines. Mechanistic: existed in the first half of the 20 century, believed that the human is passive when it encounters environmental influences. Some theorists in this domain include skinner, watson Watson= believed that you can make an individual do anything as long as the environment is controlled. A more recent mechanistic theorist is BANDURA: moved away from this view, and said that inner and outer influences exist and they affect individuals. Organismic: believes that development is a pre-determined plan. If the environment provides necessities that an individual needs, then development can unfold in a healthy way. ex.. Of a theoriest is Hall, more recent theorists: Gisell, Piaget, Erikson Contextual: is a dialectic theory- believes that there is an interaction between psychological makeup and the environment. In other words, there are internal and external determinants of behaviour. Ex of theoriests: Broufer and Brevaer, more recent: Riesel Metaphor similar to analogy think of something in terms of something else. Mechanism - understand whole in terms of its parts Organismic like embryos they are growing maturing beings with internally generated patterns of development. they initiate events. People do different thingsd at different stages Qualitative change: abrupt. Contextual an act is never isolated. Great emphasis on interaction with the environment. The acTor changes the environment that changes the actor www.notesolution.comThe lifespan perspective though includes elements of all is largely rooted in the contextual approach. All of these disciplines focus on different things: Research focuses on empirical research in life and social sciences. Reliability: stablity and consistency of findings- we trust these findings to give us the same results when we repeat the experiment. If we get different results when we repeat the experiment, then the findings are not reliable. - inter-observer: when someone is observing something, the results can lead to different diagnoses. Ex. Two observers are investigating the level of anxiety judgement, both may get different results. - test retest: doing an expeirment again to see if you get the same results. Validity: looks at whether research properly addresses what the research says to investigate -construct: is there a fitmatch between the research instruments used and its ability to measure what is supposed to be measured? Ex. Intelligence tests measure more than one intellectual ability, they measure the socioeconomic status- one can not say that an intelligence test measures only intellectual abilities - predictive: how well the performance on a test can predict ones performance in real life. Ex. Test ones capability to predict chances of success. - Internal: an issue that can arise. Ex. If an investigator designs an experiment and extraneous variables are controlled, then if a change occurs, it is most likely to be due to the variable that is under investigation. Ex. Testing if colour has an effect on mental ability- if the subject is placed in a green room and performs lower on a test, one cannot assume that this is due to the colour. The effects may have occurred due to an uncontrolled variable which therefore has threatened the internal validity of an experiment. -External: is it possible to generalize these findings to other people? If yes, then it has good external validity. How can a high level of external validity be achieved? It can be achieved through Sampling: picking out a smaller group of people that is representative of the people from a larger population that is too large to study, in order to be able to generalize the findings. How can it be achieved?
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