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Giampaolo Moraglia

500-1100- death was accepted as a part of the human existence - iwas governed by laws - death was considered as being natural and divine - the teachings of the church provided guidance TAMED DEATH- means that, death, or the discontinuation of life can mess people up psychologically, thus if we establish a meaning for death, then we can tame these emotions that otherwise arise - the 3 periods on which death is categorized, are different in terms of what emphasis they place on death * 500-1100: death was recognized as a shared/collective destiny - it was the common fcate of all people - death was religiously ruled, it was believed that a final judgement would occur by Christ *1100- 1700: there was a greater awareness in terms of recognizing one’s own death with personal meaning - this occured due to cultural and social changes - people began to emphasize individual identity *1700-1900: began recognizing “other death” - emphasized a romanticized death, where the loss of a loved one was fully expressed - they believed and hoped that there would be a reunion between the family and the individual who died - expressing mourning became normal - high quality of art developed (ex. Tombes, cemetary) - the dying person was cared for in hospitals and by health care professionals - they tried to restore life and delay death from happening *1900- 1960’s: attitudes quickly changed - death became a taboo - invisible death means that there is a lack of familiarity with the concept of death - during this time, both the family and the dying person played the “deception” game- in order to avoid thinking about death, they pretended like it wasn’t going to happena - hospitals and health care professionals treated death like an enemy - funerals: short/discrete, grief was suppressed - why did this way evolve? - due to the development of the market economy: progression of science and technology- moving away from the religious influence - death became something that happened to losers- because society emphasized achievements - dead world= irrelevant - thus, death was difficult from a physical and psychologically view: in the past, the dying person had comfort from the community because the individuals died in a hospital- thus, the absense of it makes a person feel alone, less important *Present- death is no longer a taboos - there is alienated or objectified death- - education regarding death is increasing - the purpose is to become desensitized to death if one keeps talkign about it through education Death movement: - people tried to break the taboo that existed against death - individuals struggled to get information because hospitals avoided exposed information because they viewed death as an enemy death is more than just biological: - person breaks down- not just physically - along with the development of technology, there still needs to be compassion and religion life is not just a matter of length, but also of quality and depth - one needs to help to control chronic pain, to allow an individual to fully “live life” until the last minute death is dfficult, therefore whether one uses religion/philosophy, they need something education is needed for people in school, home, and for health professionals - we need to change our attitudes about death Prominent psychologists: - ignored the issue of death until recently - systematic approach: is the present approach, when the topic of death gets accepted by psychological society. Ex. Journals focus on death FROMM: - necrophilous and biophilous are opposites (polar ends) - necrophilous: identifies every part of our character - it is oriented with the past, it is a cold character, likes mechanical things because it is already dead, likes he dark, deserts- may have cold eyes, dark skin - they think that nothing is to be gained from life - they reject life - biophilous- has a passion for life MAY: - said that one cannot ignore death - ones willingness to face death gives rise to creativity - one can only produce something new if something else is destructed - it is one’s desire to hang on to life at any cost - believes that those who reject life- are just constantly worried about the security of their lives ROSS: stages of death are well know FRANKL: since human life has a limited duration, it makes life more meaningful - if we were immortal, then it wouldn’t matter as to whether or not we ever finish anything - but since there is a limit to how long we can live, we want to accomplish things because we don’t want the moment to pass - we want to make the most of our lives FREUD: rejects the idea of death - says that we shouldn’t question it DEATH AND THE SEASONS OF LIFE JUNG: - individuals should only focus on things that are important to the stage of their life they are in - a young person should only focus on developing a stable personality, raising children and their family- this person doesn’t need to obsess over death, if they do, then there is a problem - life course= parabola- it starts at LIFE, goes up, then hits a peak and comes down- Upside down smiley face - when its rising, there is psychological growth at extends toward the peak - after the peak, the biology and psychology of life declines, until it reaches the end which is DEATH HILLMAN: life and death must be understood in relation to eachother - death is expeirienced as a state of being- it is expressed through dreams, psychotic states - some have experienced death through the holocaust - thus we die in our soul everyday, but just like our tissue is regenerated, so is our soul IMMORTALITY: FREUD: believes that if someone dies, their physical death= end of a person - we must accept this and learn to deal with it JUNG: 2 period of parabola is important (from the peak downwards to death) st - 1 period from life upwards, is a time where individuals adjust to the environment and the outside world - we learn how to adapt to demands - thus when we become settled, we need to turn inwards- connect to our inner life = nd 2 period - this involves establishing a bridge to the unconscious, which consults our dreams - parts of our personality that were hidden before need to be pulled out- ultimately, this is what is meant by achieving growth - the older we grow, the more we dream of death – how is this symbolized: the enemy is inside us (death) This part involves becoming more of an individual- becoming what one truly is - neither materialism(outer aspect) or spiritualism (inner) can be proved- if you believe it, then thats good- otherwise, can’t do much - believes that both the inner and outer aspect are equally real JAMES: father of psychology HALL: IF people really believed in life after death, there would be mass suicides occuring ROGERS: believed that there isn’t life after death, however, death, is not the end of
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