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Final Exam Review

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Alireza Haghighi

Week 1: Geographic aspects of Arabia - mainly rock & desert, coastal regions had many important ports for trade routes - tribal society surrounded by the Byzantine & Persian Empires - the main sources of livelihood: herding, agriculture, trade & tribal wars - the social org. & identity rooted in membership in an extended family o a grouping of several families created a clan o a grouping of several clans constituted a tribe - no written laws, the threat of revenge was present - Asabiyya Group loyalty was crucial & made up the unwritten laws (jahiliya) Religion of this society - Worshipped many gods, the spirits of those gods were associated w stone, springs, & wells. - Kaba was the central shrine for gods Value system - manliness: bravery in battles - loyalty to family & protection of its members - hospitality, patience & persistence - The preservation of family & tribal honor Why was this time period called jahiliya? - lack of tawhid: monotheism vs. polytheism - characterized by fatalism: no afterlife, no resurrection, do divine recordspunishments - extreme inequality btw men & women: Femicid was widely practiced - known as the age of ignorance - Class difference: social hierarchy: huge gap btw slaves, master, classes. - Legal system: fear of losing family honor, & fear of more powerful families Conclusion - the pre-Islamic Arabia was a society in which: o cities of Mecca & Medina were prospering o Huge, class disparities existed o Society was in dangerthreatened by these immoral practices when the Prophet was born Week 2 Before Prophecy - He was: an orphan, an honest man, lived humbly, has a sensitive soul & spiritual man - His wife was the 1 Muslim was a financialmoralpolitical support for Him - He approached the Meccan society by: being against their hypocrisy o Their philosophy of life: crude materialism & Fatalism o Against: Femicide, unjust treatment of orphans & widows etc - he believed that his society was in a theological crisis: monotheism vs. poly o in an economic social crisis: social justices vs. hierarchy o in moral crisis: accountability vs. fatalism & honesty vs. hypocrisy Beginning of Revelation - around 610 AD, Angel Gabriel appeared to the Prophet in Mt. Hira - His method of spreading the msg of Islam: o Quiet persuasion: focused on close family & relatives o Focused on: simple rituals (praying), principles of Tawhid. Prophecy & day of judgment o After 3 yrs he openly started to invite ppl to Islam o This gave rise to fear amount elites - His opponents & their style of confrontation: o His 1 enemy was his own uncle Abu Lahab & his wife; then tribal leaders o They used bribery, persecution, assassination plans & boycotted his tribe o This led the Prophet to expand beyond Mecca Hijra: - 622 AD: Muslim community (Umma) came into being - Negotiations w Medina delegates & sent a convoy to Negus After Prophecy: - his achievements in Medina included: unifying 2 enemy tribes in Medina st - Drafted the 1 Islamic constitution, regulated relationships w Jews & Christians - Challenges the Hypocrites, attempted to conquer Mecca, conquered it - Badi & Uhud wars - Made peace w Meccans Week 3: The Quran - as the book of God (Kitab al Allah) - as the word of God (Kalam allah) As the book: - 114 Suras: arranged in order of length (descending) - Each Sura is divided into Ayas (6236) - It was revealed in about 22 years st - Zayd Ibn Thabit: 1 person to collect it Orientalist View: - criticize it by saying that the format is frustrating - believers reply: the ordering of chapters were divinely inspired & enables the believer to start anywhere in the test 5 Major teachings: - Allah & his laws - The Quranic Universe - The Muslim Community - The final judgment - The path to paradise - The previous prophets The Quranic universe - 3 realms: heaven, earth, hell - World inhabited by human beings, spirits, angels = link btw god & humans - Jinn: btw humans & angels; created from fire
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