Mainly rock & desert, coastal regions had many important ports for trade routes tribal society surrounded by the byzantine & persian empires the main sources of livelihood: herding, agriculture, trade & tribal wars the social org. & identity rooted in membership in an extended family o o a grouping of several families created a clan a grouping of several clans constituted a tribe no written laws, the threat of revenge was present. Asabiyya group loyalty was crucial & made up the unwritten laws (jahiliya) Worshipped many gods, the spirits of those gods were associated w/ stone, springs, & wells. Manliness: bravery in battles loyalty to family & protection of its members hospitality, patience & persistence. Why was this time period called jahiliya? lack of tawhid: monotheism vs. polytheism characterized by fatalism: no afterlife, no resurrection, do divine records/punishments extreme inequality btw men & women: femicid was widely practiced known as the age of ignorance.