Key Terms from FOUNDATIONS OF SOCIETY Chapters 1 to 9 FOR TEST AND EXAM PREP
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Sociology: the systematic study of human society
Sociological perspective: seeing the general in the particular
Positivism: a way of understanding based on science
Theory: states how facts are related, weaving observations into insight
Theoretical approaches: is a basic image of society that guides thinking
social structures : is any relatively stable pattern of social behaviour
social functions : are the consequences of any social pattern for the operation of
society as a whole
structural-functional approach a framework for building theory that sees society
as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and
social-conflict approach - approach is a framework for building theory
that sees society as an arena of inequality that generates conflict and change
symbolic interactional approach - is a framework for building theory that
sees society as a product or the everyday interactions of individuals
feminist approach - A point of view that focuses on inequality and conflict
between women and men. Focuses on how Women important to the
development of sociology.
postmodern approach – an approach that is critical of modernism with a
mistrust of grand theories and ideologies
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Scientific sociology - the study of society based on systematic
observation of social behaviour.
interpretive sociology - the study of society that focuses on the
meanings people attach to the world.
critical sociology - the study of society that focuses on the need for
*critical sociology suggests that reality is subject to change
empirical evidence - information that we can verify via our sensory
*making scientific truth is based on empirical evidence
reliability - consistency in measurement
validity - actually measuring exactly what one intends to measure
objectivity - personal neutrality in conducting research
hypothesis - a statement of a possible relationship between two or
Culture - refers to the ways of thinking, the ways of acting, and the
material objects that together shape a people’s way of life.
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