soc275 notes 08/01/2014 19:50:00
← Chapter 1
← Human Beings: An Engendered Species:
← >Different ways of knowing, listen to different moral voices, have different ways of speaking
and hearing each other.
← > This ‘interplanetary’ theory of complete and universal gender difference is also typically the
way we explain another universal phenomenon, gender inequality.
← > Biological determinism:
← The view that the behavior and character of an organism, group, or system are determined by
biological factors. Most careful scientist shun true determinism, but determinist tendencies can be found
both among scientist and in popular culture.
← >Differential socialization:
← Associated with the ‘nurture’ side of the naturenurture debate, this perspective asserts that
men and women are different because they are socialized differently from birth, thus acquiring
‘masculine’ or ‘ feminine’ traits, behaviours, and attitudes.
← Sex difference: Chromosomal , anatomical, and hormonal difference between females and
males, to be considered sex differences, these distinctions must be biologically rather than culturally
← >there are enormous ranges of femaleness and maleness. Though our musculature differs,
plenty of women are physically stronger than plenty of men.
← Sex: Refers to the biological apparatus, the male and the female, our chromosomal, chemical,
Gender: Refers to the meanings that are attached to those difference within a culture. The
meanings of gender vary from culture to culture and vary within any one culture over historical time.
← Social constructionism: The theoretical orientation that sees the expression and
organization of gender not as the outcome of biology, but as the result of historical and cultural change,
the socialization of individuals, and the continuous interplay between gendered individual and gendered
institutions. Social constructionist view human nature as much as more malleable and variable than do
biological determinists. ←
← Racialized: Racialization, as a concept, recognizes that the attribution, of race.
← Privilege : The advantages that come from being a member of a dominant group ( based on
gender, race, class, ability, or sexuality), the principle of which may be the presumption of normalcy and
← ender and Power: Hegemonic Masculinity and E phasized Femininity.
← > One of the important elements of a socialconstructionist approachespecially if we intend to
dislodge the notion t