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Anthropology Midterm Notes

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Genevieve Dewar

ANTA01 Midterm Introduction to Anthropology Chapter 1Anthropology The study of humankind in particular4 fields Archaeology Biological anthropology Socialcultural anthropologyLinguistics Archaeology The study of human historyprehistory through the excavation of sites and the analysis of artefactsother physical remains Maritime archaeology historical archaeology monumental archaeology Palaeolithiccave archaeologyBiological anthropology The science of human zoology evolution and ecology Bioarchaeology bog bodies paleoanthropology primatologySocialcultural anthropology The comparative study of human societiesculturestheir development Linguistics The scientific study of language and its structure including the study of morphology syntax phonetics and semanticsArchaeological Methods Chronological methods to figure out how old things areFirst bipedsfossils Ardipithecus and the AustralopithecinesHuman originsthe eternal questionHistorically 2 paths of understand Creation mythsreligious explanationsScientific frameworkCreation Myths In the beginning Origin of the world Supernatural creator Mirrors belief systemsworldview and social structure Constantly change and adapt Always developed by the powerfulScientific Framework Scientific methodinduction Specific observations general rulestesting HypotheticoDeductive method Hypothesis based on educated guesses look for specific predicted data testing Theory development Only true when it cannot be proved wrongEvolutionGenetics Chapter 2Chapter 3 The earliest human ancestor evolved from a species that lived some 5 to 8 million years ago The ancestral species was the last common ancestor we shared with chimpanzees When did humans evolve 200000 ya Evolution Change in gene frequency over time Species A group of creatures which breed together and produce variable and fertile offspring Darwin The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection PreEnlightenmentThe Great Chain of BeingAdam and EveEarth made in 6 days Arch Bishop Ussher assumed the world was created 6000ya on October 4004BC at 9am based on his interpretation of the Bible WRONG GeologyCatastrophists If the world was only 6000 years old than the only way to explain canyons and mountains is through the catastrophic events George CuvierChallenged by Reverent Brunetslow erosion UniformitarianismBuffon Processes are known natural and observableHutton Slow working uniformnatural processeshundreds of thousands of yearsLyell The present is the key to the pastReverend Chalmer Ussher was wrong not the Bible Uniformitarianism They theory that the earths features are the result of longterm processes that continue to operate in the present as they did in the past Catastrophism The view that the earths geological landscape is the result of violent cataclysmic events Carolus LinneusCompared biology and taxonomyCategorised the worlds plantsanimals Kingdom phylum class order family genus speciesBinomial system Lamarck 1 Adaptation to the environment 2 Progression towards perfection 3 Inheritance of acquired characteristics Only 12 are right DarwinWallaceMechanism of Natural SelectionNatural selectionVariation existing in same species allows for adaptationSurvival of the Fittest Darwins Finches Change occurs as an adaptation to a changing local environmentNo direction Natural selection Natural Selection Survival of the Fittest 1 Favorable variations promote survival of the individuals in whom they appearTraits are inherited by their offspring whose chances of survival are also betterFavorable variations eventually spread through the population 2 Unfavorable variations dont promote survival 3 For any species natural forces act to favor the expansion of some traits and to favor the removal of other traits from future generationsSexual Selection A type of natural selection that operates on only one sex within a species Its the result of competitions for mates and it can lead to sexual dimorphism with regard to one or more traitsMendels Law breedingEach observed trait derives from a package of information gene acquired by the individual at conceptionFor each trait an individual possesses two genes one from each parentTwo matching genes homozygous state for a given trait individual receives the same gene form from parents GreenGreenHeterozygous state Individual receives 2 different gene forms from parents GreenYellowThe whole set of different forms for a given gene are known as alleles
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