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Maggie Cummings

Lecture 1 January 12, 2009 -Sociologists rely on data, questionnaires and archives, anthropologists do their research through fieldwork, first hand knowledge -It is a rite of passage until a person does its fieldwork -Ethnography- the fieldwork that is written, through first-hand experience and adventures -Portray a natives culture through a natives point of view, the more detailed and more compelling the information is, the more valid and reliable the information is -More recent anthropology was in the Victorian era. - Hierarchy of civilization- All cultures evolved from magical thinking, to religious thinking to scientific rational thought -Armchair anthropology- anthropology done in a distance from the field of study, did not really participate in village civilization, work with missionaries and colleagues -Britain: Social anthropology, America: Cultural anthropology -On the Verandah- Malinowski did not really interact with the natives, was an observant, due to the British war, he was compelled to become one of them, stayed there for two years -Participant observation- participating in an activity and then write about it later on -Realized cataloguing cultures was not effective and did not do justice, better to interact with the culture and not rank villages and culture through a hierarchy -Franz Boas- things needed to be studied in their own terms -Cultural Relativism- as anthropologists must specific beliefs and concepts relative to the culture, cannot judge based on their own experience and traditions. Try get enough content to understand the culture through its own term -Ethnocentrism- judging a culture through their own culture and beliefs -Fieldwork is holistic, must understand most things through first-hand experience -Culture is what makes us human, allows as to function as social animals -Anthropologists must learn the rules of the culture to understand it and how they are tied together -Esthetics, kinship, laws, government- think of these as systems to maintain its perpetuations, theyre all interrelated which makes culture as a whole Salvage ethnography- certain cultures are disappearing due to contact of other cultures, must be salvaged by writing about it Multi-sited ethnography- several places to do fieldwork, shows how people do not stay in one place Native anthropology- anthropologists who study their own culture , they have already been normally the one being studied, short end of the stick Ethnography at home- studying your own culture Post-colonial anthropology- studying a culture after colonization or assimilation of a larger power Cockfights are more fights about men, not really about the rooster Balinese are afraid of their inner animality; destruction, danger, fear, anger, range. Represent how they see themselves. Deepest matches are those who have the most riding on them, and the even playing field between the fighters. Not really about money, more about winning and status. People invest money in the cockfights because it adds value to the meaning, increases the significance Balinese culture is more about status-edged, teaches us about status Lecture 2- January 19, 2010 -What we learn about culture is what we see in the world -Worldview is an encompassing picture of reality based on a set of shared assumptions about how the world works -People may live in a society with different worldviews, or one worldview may dominate -When there was no rain, the Bima people though there was something impeding the rain, the gift from the powerful Allah, so they prayed for rain -believed that mischievous spirits were holding rains, the Dou Donggo made an offering to the spirits, -worldview- tells us a lot about human beings, the relation between nature and the people -Relationship between language, culture and reality, we are what we speak, no other species can speak elaborately and emotionally as humans -people live in a different reality depending the language they speak -endemic world -language is more about labels, more a starting place, significance of learning the language is an important step to understanding a foreigners culture and values -people described situations through linguistic ways, the wording of words is important for the interpretation, -the Dou Donggo dont separate themselves with the environment -the language that we have is how we see reality -the idea that language structures/shapes reality, is not really valid, not as widely accepted -different cultures have different metaphors for apprehending the world, shaping reality in different ways - how we define time is important to our culture -tendency in English to objectify and quantify time is favourable in order to keep records and projecting things into the future, forecasting -spatialize time, time has actions (fly, run) , can run out or is slow -Benjamin Franklin captured the essence of the word time -a protestant work ethic- Max Weber, asceticism- through self-denial or punishment, you can achieve a higher spiritual state of being -protestant work of ethic shouldnt be for wealth only, its actually a sign of Gods approval/blessing -people appreciate time as a gift when they go through important passages of time -ritualization of child birth teaches us many things about our worldview -can inculcate us with secular ideas, symbolic routines that emphasize our values in culture -rising up for a job is accepting the authority or the law system and the power of the government, doing these rituals are important to our everyday lifes -rituals have a large power and influence on a persons being -rituals make people conform to societies -rites of passage- rituals that mark the transition from one life stage to another -all have three stages Separation: often hazed, many different and weird things occur Transition/ liminality: neither part of the stage before or next stage, dangerous part of ritualistic places, moving along the aisle from single life to being married Integration: reintergrated to the world in the new status, graduated, Liminality- Victor Turner, happens in the transition period, between and betwixt state of ambiguity, being invisible not yet in the real world, causes intense feelings for each other, feel same affinity with each other if youre moving stages together, Lecture 3 January 26, 2010 Liminal stage is a period of transition where normal limits of thought, self-understanding and behaviour are relaxed, leading to new perspectives Natural biological, this holds a particular place that refines nature Cultural constructionism- human behaviour and ideas are best explained as the result of culturally shaped learning, (men + spatial skills due to society and human culture) Biological determinism- biological features such as genes or hormones are used to explain behaviour and ideas, the opposite of cultural constructionism (men + spatial skills due to human evolution and selective learning) Social construct- concept or practice that is sean as natural, common sense but is actually an invention or an artifact of a particular culture Social constructs change all the time, when worldviews are challenged and changed All cultures use age and gender to put them in categories (differentiated by goals), matter of biology Culture anthropologists make a distinction between sex- male/female through genital/ chromosomal and hormonal differences while gender are about men and women, social beings, cultural differences that men and women contribute to. Gender frosting on a sex cake
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