Final Exam 2009 study notes ANTB20

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Girish Daswani

Working definition o Local identities are usually strengthened because Interconnectedness Coming together of cultures people begin to emphasize their uniqueness overtly o Networks connecting people across continents are Outsourcing labor (making it cheap for companies) only when it appears to be threatened. becoming denser, faster and wider. o On the other hand, it is evidently true that local Movement Consistent circulation of people andor things Increase flow of communication of technology. power is often weakened as a result of globalization. o Entire world is on the move, or so it seems. Increasing interconnectedness of the world Mixing What is new? Erikson o Cultural crossroads friction AND mutual influence Hybriditymixing End of the Cold War (Communism vs Capitalism) Vulnerability Ideologies of FreedomHuman rights 1989-1991 o Weakening, and sometimes obliteration of Three Dimensions of Globalization Erikson o Free markets (USA) vs closed markets (USSR) boundaries Increased trade and transnational economic activity. o Led to global alliances Re-embedding o two bloc system to a one bloc system o Countervailing forces opposing the other dimensions Faster and denser communications networks. and positing alternatives. Tensions between (and within) cultural groups have o Capitalism over socialismcommunism. been intensified. o Free trade evangelized. o IMFWBNAFTAWTO (neo-liberal) Objective globalization incorporated into a global, or a Internetother forms of technology wide-ranging transational, system without necessarily What Globalization is not Erikson being aware of it. Globalization is really recent, and began only in the o Global Village Marshall McLuhan 1980s. o Term that designates the new mass media situation. Subjective globalization acknowledgement of such o Not the case. World systems have existed earlier in a o Creation of shared frames of reference and mutual sense that people all over the world have knowledge between people from across the globe. processes taking place. o * Too simple of a term, argues other participated, often involuntary, in political and anthropologists. Characteristics of Globalization Inda and Rosaldo economic systems of a huge, often intercontinental The development of worldwide modes of transport scale. o and communication. o Ex: Romans, Babylonians, etc. o Time-space distantiation Anthony Giddens o Globalization stretching of social life across time An intensification of the links, modes of interaction, Globalization is just a new word for economic and space and flows that interconnect the world. imperialism or cultural Westernization. o Remote encounters win over face-to-face A stretching of social, cultural, political and economic o Although it is true that rich countries are dominant, practices across frontiers so as to make possible action the situation is not static. interaction. at a distance. o o Direction of flows is not unilateral. o Times-spaces compression David Harvey A heightened entanglement of the global and local. o Globalization == Westernization. o The shoe, how it is made and exported. Globalization means homonogenization. o Misleading; participation in globaltransnational o Shrinking of space and the compression of time. processes often entails a vitalization of local cultural expressions which depend on an overseas market for their survival. Globalization is opposed to human rights o Global spread of human rights is one of the most Other Dimensions of Globalization Erikson spectacularly successful forms of globalization Disembedding (de-location) o Distance is irrelevant, relative or at the very least experienced in the world. o Workers rights? but it is only thanks to the less important globalization of political ideas that local o All means through which social life becomes communities and organizations can argue effectively abstracted from its local, spatially fixed context. against them and canvas for support from Acceleration o Speed of transport and communication has transnational NGOs and governments overseas. increased. Distance no longer means separation. Threat to local identities Standardization o Comparability and shared standards (ex: English) o was assumed to happen by getting rid of state TOURISM Dominican Republic (Gregory) policies and barriers. Flows of good, ideas, money, and people would be pervasive and unimpeded. Tourism in the DR is a big business and what drives the economy since the 90s Friction is required to keep global power in motion. The beach becomes a symbolic space where globalization can be visualized through the o Roads create pathways that make motion easier and interactions between foreigners and residents more efficient, but in doing so they limit where we creating a spatial economy of difference. go. o Also serves as confinement. o Small businesses and petty trade on the beaches. Friction inflects historical trajectories, enabling, excluding and particularizing. o Outside these beach zones, even more informal Awkwardness economy (services and goods) Not everyone has the same capacity for mobility. Gregory focuses on the production and policing of People and places whose experience are marginal to Roles(s) of globalization (ECONOMY) division of labor and the inequalities that this or excluded from these movements and links People as invisible when speaking about IMFWB influences the local economies of expresses and secures. globalization. developing countries. The politics of identity are fused with the everyday Assuming that the world is becoming a smaller place politics of making a living but how? does not mean that we are becoming more alike, that SAPs encourages privatization and free trade everyone is accounted for equally, or the people He speaks of the field of antagonism and conflict that experience these changes in the same way. o Privatization Public assets are taken over by private companies in order to make a profit. The is at the centre of the lives of his informants. Little to no access to transport and means for communication (price is too high) price goes up for the consumers (citizens). o Work more, get less. Disjuncture (Appadurai) o Free Trade Great idea but not everyone starts on The increase of tourism in Boca Chica drew many the same common ground. Therefore, informal migrants from the outlying rural areas and created global village underplays the importance of a economy becomes dominant. concurrent movement toward ironies and floating populations most of who helped create a resistances, sometimes camouflaged as passivity and huge informal economy. a bottomless appetite in the Asian world for things Citizenship and the politics of exclusion western. Importance of Disjuncture and Friction Imagination as a social practice. However one mans imagined community is another mans political prison he also says. By posing global Raise concern with the less spoken about; chaotic, capitalisms and its homogenizing tendencies as real, divisive, violent aspects of global privatization and THE INFORMAL ECONOMY Dominican Republic capitalism. (Gregory) we somethings forget the reality of hegemonic strategies that are also in play. Raising awareness of the contextual and culturally Label that exists outside the formal wage-labor specific (sometimes invisible) aspects of this thing relations and outside state regulation Friction (Tsing) the awkward, unequal, unstable and creative qualities called globalization. While the world informal suggests that it is outside of interconnection across difference. the formal economy, it needs to be looked at as an Heterogeneous and unequal ecountars can lead to new intrinsic part of the overall structure of change. arrangement of culture and power. The promise of globalization and its image as a well- o Hustlers, gangsters, delinquents, black markets oiled machine motion without restraint are these considered normal?
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