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Father of epidemiology: Snow, Farr, Semmelweiss - Snow: shoe-leather epidemiology, miasma, cholera - Farr: emphasized consistency in Bills of Mortality, redefined life table - Semmelweiss: connection b/w invisible invaders and poor health, washing hands and washing tools before practice - Fathers of microbiology: Anton van Leeuwenhoek, Pasteur, Koch - Germ theory!!!!!! - Koch’s postulates still used today - Organism must be present - Org. must be isolated in sufferer and grown in pure culture - Disease must be reproduced - Org. must be recoverable Father of immunology: Edward Jenner - Injected boy with puss to prevent small pox Penicillin: discovered by Alexander Fleming - Cure for bacterial infections - Start of a pharmaceutical revolution Epidemi. Triad Host + Pathogen + Environment = disease Infectious agents as well as noninfectious agents can cause diseases Infectious: bacteria, rickettsia, viruses, prisons, protozoa, fungi, metazoan Non-infectious: nutrition, poisons, allergens, metabolic disorders, hormonal disorders, genetic diseases, psychological disorders, physical factors Direct transmission vs. Indirect transmission Direct: respiratory, fecal-oral, sexual, vertical, direct contact Indirect: water-borne, food-borne, soil-borne, needle-sharing, vector-borne, complex cycles Incubation period: you have the disease but no symptoms Latent: not able to transmit to others Infective/ infectious: able to transmit disease to others Symptomatic: showing signs of illness Public health vs. anthropology: - Public health predetermined categories - Look at fixed values, physical features and compare across boundaries - Anthropology looks at culture to determine attributes that is considered imoportant - Look at individual behaviors and other non-biomedical paradigms Rapid Anthropological Assessment: using field anthropology techniques to look at health behavior and health-seeking behavior from the perspective of the community Types of Studies: - Case studies: an in-depth analysis of a single person (case) or a few (series)  Not good for statistics  Used for very rare disorders - Cohort Studies: tracks occurance of disease among groups w/in particular pop’n  Find a group of people  those exposed to risk factor and those not exposed to risk factor  of those who get dieases and whom do not - Case-control: matches people with a particular disease (cases) with people w/o it (controls) as closely as possible (ie. Same sex, age, income, etc.)  Presence/absence of dieases chosen in advance - Cross-sectional: measure risk factor and diease status at the same time in INDIVIDUALS  Snapshot of population  Cheap  Find a group of people  Exposed to risk factor and not exposed whom are sick whom are not - Correlational  Measure risk factor and diseases status at the same time in ENTIRE POPULATION  The occurrence of something leads to unpleasurable event - Potential problem confounders  Things that were not measure that might affect the outcome - Both correlational and Cross sectional studies run the risk of a Logical Fallancy  Just b/c 2 things are correlated does not mean on caused the other - Radomized trial  Individuals allocated to groups randomly and then administered an intervention  Expe
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