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Lecture 15
Jupiter must have a rocky-type core about 10 Earth mass.
Stable flow underlies zones and bands called zonal flow. The right wind with respect to the
internal rotation.
The composition of atmosphere: hydrogen, helium, small amount of ammonia, methane and
water vapor.
The color is due to the complex chemical interactions. High speed in great depth is due to inner
heat. The heat is because of gravitational compression. At the enormous pressures present in
Jupiter the hydrogen acts like a metal. The plasma torus results from particles emitted by
volcanic eruptions on lo. Magnetic field tilted relative to rotation axis. The strength is 20,000
than Earth’s.
Four Galileo satellites: Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto
Density decreases as distance from the Jupiter increase, similar to terrestrial planets.
Lecture 16
Jupiter emits about twice as much as energy as it received from the Sun.
Io is the most active object in solar system. Orange is from sulfur components. The tidal force of
Europa and Jupiter can provide energy of volcanoes.
Europa has no craters, covered by water ice, liquid water below. Europa has a very weak
magnetic field.
Ganymede is the largest moon in solar system. Water ice covered. It has its own magnetic field
which is the only one moon has.
Callisto has heavily cratered surface.
The moon of Saturn:
30 moons most made of water ice. 6 medium size moons, 1 large size moon Titan: only moon
with atmosphere.
Enceladus featured ice geysers due to tidal force from Dione and Saturn.
The atmosphere of Titan is composing of nitrogen and argon, thicker and denser than earth's
atmosphere. It features a lot of the hydrocarbons. The only body has precipitation other than
earth in solar system. The precipitation would be methane and ethane rain and liquid lakes may
Lecture 17
Saturn: the equatorial diameter exceeds the polar by 10%.
The wind pattern of Saturn is similar to those on Juniper with zonal flow. Similar with Jupiter:
three cloud layers but lower pressure; has zone and band structure; hydrogen, helium, ammonia,
methane, helium fraction is much less than Jupiter; rain of helium, more uniform color is due to
the thicker top cloud layer;
5% magnetic field as strong as Jupiter; phases occur because of tilt of rings relative to orbit
The rings emit different intensity radiation in EM spectrum.
Cassini division is caused by ring resonance of other particles and the innermost moon Mimas
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Uranus: the season is so long (about 21 years)
The outer atmosphere of Uranus and Neptune is similar to those of Jupiter and Saturn.
Methane give them blue color and featureless surface.
Neptune must have the internal energy source to maintain the same temperature as Uranus. And
its band structure is visible.
They both have magnetic fields, but large angle to their rotation axis. (off center)
Lecture 18
Neptune has five rings, three are narrow, and two are wider.
Neptune has 13 moons, but only one is large moon.
The moon called Triton has a retrograde orbit which is only one moon in solar system. It has
fewer craters due to high active planet. The retrograde orbit indicates that Triton did not form
with Neptune unless it suffered a subsequent collision. Nitrogen geysers on the Triton result
heating from the sun. The surface is covered by frozen nitrogen and methane.
Nereid can be seen because its high eccentric orbit.
1 km diameter asteroid colliding on the earth is equal to the power of 100 times more than all the
nuclear on the earth.
3 asteroids will collide with the earth in million year’s period.
Most asteroids are between Mars and Jupiter, which cross the earth orbit are called Apollo
asteroids, which cross the Mars orbits are called Amor asteroid.
The classification of asteroids:
C-type: carbonaceous dark, most common.
S-type: silicate (rocky)
M-type: metallic; iron and nickel.
Comets are primordial fragments of dusty and ice material. It has a small nucleus and a coma of
gas and dust. Its ion tail always point away from the sun due to the solar wind (straighter). The
dust tail starts to form when it near the sun. And always indicate the path it has taken.
Short-period comets come from the Kuiper belt. Long-period comets come from Ooro cloud.
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