BIOA01H3- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 68 pages long!)

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Published on 30 Nov 2017
School
UTSC
Department
Biological Sciences
Course
BIOA01H3
UTSC
BIOA01H3
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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BIOA01 Module 1
Lecture 1
Evolution Microevolution: Genetic Changes within Populations
Life originated on Earth = 3.5 million years ago
Humans appeared on Earth =
What is Evolution?
Evolution: is the change through time.
Biological Evolution:
o Change in allele frequencies in population
o Genetic changes in population
o The population will evolve; individuals do not evolve.
o If a trait is influenced by genes, it can evolve.
Penicillin:
It is the product of the Penicillium mold
It is the evolved response to bacteria.
o Fungi responded to bacteria and released this chemical which stops bacterial
growth.
First antibiotic drug based on naturally occurring substance.
4 years of use caused 14% of Staphlyococcus strains to be resistant
By 1950, more than 50% were resistant
Resistant bacteria kill 30,000 to 40,000 Americans each year.
How did Penicillin develop?
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Penicillium mold started to grow on a plate but before putting that
there, Staphylococcus was spreaded across which resulted in it
growing.
Zone of inhibited growth: found the Penicillin molecule
o A region where Staphylococcus didn’t grow
Microevolution/Macroevolution:
Microevolution: changes within the species
Adaptations of the populations
Can be under strong natural selection
o For example, antibiotic
resistance.
Heritable variation in the genetics of a
population.
Macroevolution: changes between species.
Population: individuals of species at the same place and time.
Phenotypic variation: how the individuals looked, behaved, and functioned. There are 2 types:
1. Quantitative variation: Characteristics with a range of variation.
Traits that need measurement, such as height
Are controlled by multiple genes
Can be represented by a bell curve
2. Qualitative variation: Characteristics with a distinct state.
Polymorphisms: distinct varieties of character. For example,
o The peas being wrinkled or round.
o The beetles either being red with black spots or black
with red spots.
Phenotypic Variation Bahaman Land Snails:
Don’t have qualitative variation, but quantitative instead.
Can measure the length of the shells, the number of ridges, the size of the opening, etc
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Document Summary

Life originated on earth = 3. 5 million years ago. It is the product of the penicillium mold. Microevolution: changes within the species: adaptations of the populations, can be under strong natural selection, for example, antibiotic resistance, heritable variation in the genetics of a population. Population: individuals of species at the same place and time. Phenotypic variation: how the individuals looked, behaved, and functioned. For example: the peas being wrinkled or round, the beetles either being red with black spots or black with red spots. Phenotypic variation bahaman land snails: don"t have qualitative variation, but quantitative instead, can measure the length of the shells, the number of ridges, the size of the opening, etc. Bell curve: for quantitative traits, a generalized bell curve can be made, the top bell curve shows a lot of variations amongst the population, the bottom bell curve doesn"t show a lot of variation, the variance is smaller.

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