BIOA02H3 Study Guide - Final Guide: Quorum Sensing, Temperate Deciduous Forest, Climax Community

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BIOA02 Life on Earth: Form, Function, and Interactions
Facilitated Study Group Module 3: Final Review (Lectures 7-12)
Multiple Choice:
1. You are studying communities on small islands in a river, and notice that when only two plants are
present, species A outcompetes species B, and becomes the only species present. However, when a
grazer that only feeds on species A is present, both species A and species B persist on the island. What is
the most likely explanation for this outcome?
A) Species A and species B are dividing up their niches (niche differentiation) to allow coexistence
B) Species B has evolved to take advantage of a different resource (character displacement) so they are
no longer in direct competition
C) Species B has evolved to be a better competitor and so can coexist with species A
D) The grazer is acting as a ‘disturbance’, keeping species A in lower numbers so that species B can
persist (i.e. predator-mediated coexistence)
E) More than one of the above
2. Which one of the following doesn’t contribute to coral reef ecosystem degradation?
A) Overfishing
B) Sedimentation
C) Nutrient pollution
D) Global warming
E) All of the following contribute to ecosystem degradation.
3. If disturbances are frequent:
A) more patches will be dominated by opportunistic species
B) more patches dominated by better competitors
C) will have no effect on specie richness
D) none of the above.
4. Which of the following examples describes a community undergoing primary succession?
A) pine trees invade an abandoned agricultural field
B) lichens grow on lava rock produced by a relatively recent volcanic eruption
C) grass growing in an area where the trees were killed by an avalanche
D) fireweed invades a forest destroyed by fire
5. A climax community is one that is in ______.
A) primary succession
B) secondary succession
C) ecological equilibrium
D) mid-succession
6. The ___________ states that a moderate amount of disturbance is required for a high degree of
community diversity.
A) Gleason’s theory of biodiversity
B) keystone hypothesis
C) theory of succession
D) theory of island biogeography
E) intermediate disturbance hypothesis
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7. Pioneer species such as __________ begin to build up soil in primary succession.
A) pine trees
B) shrubs
C) grasses
D. old deciduous forests
8. If disturbances are frequent: (repeat of 3)
A) more patches will be dominated by opportunistic species
B) more patches dominated by better competitors
C) will have no effect on specie richness
D) none of the above.
9. Food webs indicate:
A) how species are related.
B) all of the primary consumers.
C) the detritivores that recycle nutrients.
D) the trophic interactions in a community.
E) the amount of biomass in a community.
10. What is the difference between an ecosystem and a community?
A) A community is larger than an ecosystem.
B) An ecosystem is a community plus the physical environment of that area.
C) An ecosystem includes only biotic factors.
D) An ecosystem includes only abiotic factors.
E) None of the above
11. Organisms are classified into trophic levels according to _____.
A) where they live
B) the source of their nutrients
C) how much they weigh
D) all of the above
12. Tertiary consumers feed on _____.
A) producers
B) primary consumers
C) secondary consumers
D) none of the above
13. Inorganic nutrients are released from dead organic matter and animal wastes by _____.
A) decomposers
B) secondary consumers
C) producers
D) autotrophs
14. Solar energy is first transformed by _____ when it enters an ecosystem.
A) producers
B) primary consumers
C) secondary consumers
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15. The total biomass of an organism will be determined by the nutrient present in the lowest
concentration relative to the organism's requirements is a statement of
A) Liebig's Law of the minimum.
B) Shelford's law of tolerance.
C) the second law of thermodynamics.
D) quorum sensing.
E) Heisenberg's principle of uncertainty.
16. In ecosystems, why is the term cycling used to describe the movement of nutrients, whereas the
term flow is used for the movement of energy?
A) Materials are repeatedly used, but energy flows through and out of ecosystems.
B) Both material and energy are recycled and are then transferred to other ecosystems as in a flow.
C) Both material and energy flow in one direction within an ecosystem.
D) None of the choices is correct.
17. Which statement most accurately describes how matter and energy are used in ecosystems?
A) Matter is cycled through ecosystems; energy is not.
B) Energy is cycled through ecosystems; matter is not.
C) Matter is used in ecosystems; energy is not.
D) Energy is used in ecosystems; matter is not.
18. Photosynthetic organisms are unique to most ecosystems because they:
A) synthesize organic compounds they obtain from decaying heterotrophs.
B) synthesize inorganic compounds from organic compounds.
C) use light energy to synthesize organic compounds.
D) use chemical energy to synthesize organic compounds.
E) convert light energy into matter.
19. Which of the following members of a food web is in the third trophic level?
A) secondary consumers
B) primary consumers
C) tertiary consumers
D) none of the above
20. To recycle nutrients, an ecosystem must have, at a minimum,
A) producers.
B) producers and decomposers.
C) producers, primary consumers, and decomposers.
D) producers, primary consumers, secondary consumers, and decomposers.
E) producers, primary consumers, secondary consumers, top carnivores, and decomposers.
21. Which of the following terms encompasses all of the others?
A) heterotrophs
B) herbivores
C) carnivores
D) primary consumers
E) secondary consumers
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