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LIFE 8th Edition

8 Pages
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Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOA02H3
Professor
Kamini Persaud

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LIFE: The Science of Biology Eighth Ed.
Chapter 53 Behaviour and Behavioural Ecology
In this Chapter, we will see how biologists identify the hereditary and experiment underpinnings of behaviour.
We will consider how genes and environment interact to shape the development of both the behaviour of
individuals and the long-term evolution of behaviour. We will discuss several types of animal behaviours: how
animals respond to changes in the environment, decide where to carry out their activities, select the resources
they need (food, water, shelter, nest sites), respond to predators and competitors, and associate with other
members of their own species.
53.1 What questions do biologists ask about behaviour?
Scientists, like Niko Tinbergen a founder of ethology-the study of animal behaviour from
an evolutionary perspective, who study behaviour describe what they observe and then try
to answer either proximate or ultimate questions about the behaviour.
A young female Japanese macaque washed sandy fruit, it became a culture within
the population thereafter.
Proximate mechanisms neuronal, hormonal and anatomical underlyings
Ultimate causes-selection pressures that shaped its evolution.
53.2 How do genes and environment interact to shape behaviour?
Animals perform many stereotypic and species-species behaviours without prior experience.
Experiments and distinguish between genetic and environmental influences on behaviour
In a deprivation experiment, an animal is deprived of all experience relevant to the
behaviour under study so that is genetic component can be assessed. EX. Deprived
tree squirrel did not exhibit digging and burying behaviours until, a nut given to it
triggered the behaviours.
In a genetic experiment, investigators are able to compare the behaviours of
individuals that differ in only one or a few known genes. REVIEW Fig 53.2. They can
alter genomes by interbreeding closely.
Inherited behaviours are often triggered by simple stimuli called releasers (an object,
event or condition required to elicit behaviour. In the deprived squirrel example, the nut
would be the releaser. Such behaviour is adaptive when opportunities to learn are lacking
and when mistakes are costly or even lethal. Spiders adapt their webs to accommodate
location, and animals find niches with specific features, although not all niches are
identical.
Imprinting is a type of learning that takes place during a critical period in an animals
development. Classic example is the recognition of offspring to their parents and of parents
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LIFE: The Science of Biology Eighth Ed.
to offspring. This is essential in colonies or herds (of penguins!). Imprinting requires only a
brief exposure but its effects are strong and can last a long time. The critical period may be
determined by a brief developmental or hormonal state. EX. Mother goat has 10 minutes
after giving birth to learn olfactory cues from its newborn.
Learning abilities require proximate mechanisms whose construction requires genetic
information and learning. Review Fig 53.5. EX. Male white-crowned sparrows have two
critical periods to learn his species-specific song:
Nestling stage, song memories are created in his nervous system from song that he
would hear as a nestling
Approaching sexual maturity, when he begins to sing he MUST hear his own
song. Its crucial for trial and error, eventually matching the song stored in memory.
Therefore if a nestling who learnt its song becomes deaf before maturity, it will not
learn its song.
Through deprivation experiments, it has been found that these sparrows will not
imprint on other species songs. Genes make it easy to learn their own song, but not
of other species.
Hormones can influence the development and expression of behaviour patterns at
genetically determined times Review Fig. 53.6. All behaviour relies on the nervous system
for initiation, coordination, and execution. Every spring, the testosterone levels in males
increase, causing certain parts of the miles brain (learning and developing song) to grow
larger. Contrary to the belief that no new neurons can be produced in adult vertebrates, the
songbirds neurons in those regions increase in quantity, size and number extensions.
So how come only males sing and females dont? Surely females have learnt their
song when they were nestlings as well? Well, an experiment where testosterone
-injected female bird during spring had developed their species-specific song.
Females are capable of expressing it but lack the hormonal stimulation.
53.3 How do Behavioural responses to the Environment influence
fitness?
The cues most organisms use to select suitable habitats are good predictors for their future
survival in those habitats. Once a habitat is chose, the animal seeks its food, resting places,
nest sites and escape routes within that habitat.
Red abalone larvae chooses places to settle based on simple chemosensory cues,
chemicals produced by only coralline algae, its major source of food. Thus, they
always settle on a surface that has potential of supply food.
www.notesolution.com
LIFE: The Science of Biology Eighth Ed.
Visual cues of settled inhabitants serve as an indication as a good habitat. EX,
collared flycatchers during breeding season peer into their neighbours habitats (bird
nests) to assess the quality of their habitat.
Highly social organisms vote on where they live, when honey bees outgrow their
hive they swarm out, and vote on the reports (vigorous dancing is how they
communicate) of scouts for nearby potential nests.
Animals may establish and defend a territory, giving themselves exclusive use of that
space. An animal may improve its fitness by establishing conspecifics-other individuals of
the same species. They sometimes share it with members of another species as well, by
advertising that it owns the area or chasing others away. Time spent on defending territory
could have been spent on finding resources.
A cost-benefit approach analyzes the total cost of any particular behaviour in terms of
energetic, risk, and opportunity costs. Review Fig 53.8. It assumes that the animal only
has a limited amount of time and energy. The total cost of any particular behaviour
typically has three components:
Energy costs is the difference between the energy the animal would have expended
had it rested and the energy expended in performing the behaviour.
Risk cost is the increased chance of being injured or killed as a result of performing
the behaviour, compared with resting.
Opportunity cost is the sum of the benefits the animal forfeits by not being able to
perform other behaviours during the same time interval. EX. an animal that devotes
all of its time to foraging has not time to mate.
An example would be an experiment where spiny lizards embedded with testosterone
pill in their skin had spent more time on patrolling territories and advertising displays
and expended about one-third more energy (energy cost) than control males. As a
result they had less time to feed (opportunity cost) and died at a higher rate (risk
cost).
Animals also defend territories of different sizes; all-purpose, nesting territories for
rest, and mating display grounds.
Foraging theory helps behavioural ecologists understand the survival value of animals’
food choices. When choosing food, animals often function as energy maximizers. Review Fig
53.10. They rank food in order of how much energy they can get from it.
Calculations show that if the most valuable food type is abundant enough, an
animal gains the most energy per unit of time, by foraging for those.
www.notesolution.com

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Description
LIFE: The Science of Biology Eighth Ed. Chapter 53 Behaviour and Behavioural Ecology In this Chapter, we will see how biologists identify the hereditary and experiment underpinnings of behaviour. We will consider how genes and environment interact to shape the development of both the behaviour of individuals and the long-term evolution of behaviour. We will discuss several types of animal behaviours: how animals respond to changes in the environment, decide where to carry out their activities, select the resources they need (food, water, shelter, nest sites), respond to predators and competitors, and associate with other members of their own species. 53.1 What questions do biologists ask about behaviour? Scientists, like Niko Tinbergen a founder of ethology-the study of animal behaviour from an evolutionary perspective, who study behaviour describe what they observe and then try to answer either proximate or ultimate questions about the behaviour. A young female Japanese macaque washed sandy fruit, it became a culture within the population thereafter. Proximate mechanisms neuronal, hormonal and anatomical underlyings Ultimate causes-selection pressures that shaped its evolution. 53.2 How do genes and environment interact to shape behaviour? Animals perform many stereotypic and species-species behaviours without prior experience. Experiments and distinguish between genetic and environmental influences on behaviour In a deprivation experiment, an animal is deprived of all experience relevant to the behaviour under study so that is genetic component can be assessed. EX. Deprived tree squirrel did not exhibit digging and burying behaviours until, a nut given to it triggered the behaviours. In a genetic experiment, investigators are able to compare the behaviours of individuals that differ in only one or a few known genes. REVIEW Fig 53.2. They can alter genomes by interbreeding closely. Inherited behaviours are often triggered by simple stimuli called releasers (an object, event or condition required to elicit behaviour. In the deprived squirrel example, the nut would be the releaser. Such behaviour is adaptive when opportunities to learn are lacking and when mistakes are costly or even lethal. Spiders adapt their webs to accommodate location, and animals find niches with specific features, although not all niches are identical. Imprinting is a type of learning that takes place during a critical period in an animals development. Classic example is the recognition of offspring to their parents and of parents www.notesolution.com
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