Primary transcript has no promoter > mature transcript only exons > proteins. Purines include: a, g transition | c for g transversion. Transition going from purine to purine or pyrimidine to pyrimidine. Transversion going from purine to pyrimidine or pyrimidine to purine. Transversions are much more difficult to do than transitions. Pure as gold -> purines = adenine and guanine. Understand the process of evolution by considering differences in gene frequencies and genotype frequency within a population. Population genetics: the study of naturally occurring differences between organisms. Evolutionary processes are primarily occurring within population. Most, if not all concepts in this course are important, only in the context of populations, not individuals. A represents everything including the populations and is called the meta-population. We can also consider a as the population and b would be considered as subpopulations, demes, or local populations. Figure 2. 2 whitlock in 1992 fungus beetle allele frequencies decrease as population size increases.