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BIOC21H3 Study Guide - Bone Marrow, Mast Cell, Metallo


Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOC21H3
Professor
Stefan Rusyniak

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LECTURE 8 BLOOD
Erythrocytes
Neutrophils
Eosinophils
Basophils
Monocytes
Lymphocytes
Platelets
Abundance
~43% of total blood volume
40-60% (most
common
leukocyte)
1-4% (not very
common
leukocyte)
<1% (least
common
leukocyte)
2-8% (not
very
common
leukocyte)
20-40% (2nd
most common
leukocyte)
Derived
from
Bone marrow
Differentiate
from bone
marrow
precursor
Megakaryocytes
(large,
multinucleated
cells with larger
amount of
cytoplasm) in
bone marrow
Size
(diameter)
7.5-8.5 µm
~12-15 µm
~12-15 µm
~12-15 µm
~18 µm
(largest
leukocyte)
- Cell size
determined by
amount of
cytoplasm.
- Smallest
leukocyte
3-5 µm
Nucleus
- Enucleate (no nucleus)
- Amitotic
- Central region = area of
pallor
- Lighter staining
- Fewer protein
- Multilobed
nucleus
- Usually 4-7
lobules in
mature cells
- # of lobules -
maturity
Bilobed nucleus
- Bilobed
nucleus
- difficult to
see
Large,
eccentric,
light-
staining
(pale)
nucleus
(often
horseshoe or
kidney bean
shaped)
Round, fairly
dense nucleus
None
Shape/
Contents
Biconcave disk (allows for
flexibility and maximize SA
for gas exchange)
- Few
mitochondria
and other
Produces
histaminase and
Aryl-sulphatase
- Large
granules
- Have cell
Decondense
d chromatin
- Very little
cytoplasm
when inactive
Not cell, but
fragments of
cells

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organelles
- Contain very
large
lysosomes.
- Contain
enzymes
including
lysozymes,
lactoferrin,
myelo-
peroxidase, and
metallo-
proteases
surface
immune-
globulins
IgE
- Granules
containing:
Heparin
sulphate,
histamine,
leukotrienes
- When
activated,
cytoplasm
accumulates
and cell size
increases
Function
- Transport O2 to cells and
tissues (contain hemoglobin
[Hb])
- Production is controlled by
erythropoietin hormone
- Stores
glycogen and
uses glycolysis
for energy.
- Targets
bacteria
They mediate
inflammation
and are often
used to modulate
the activity of
mast cells.
- Not well
known
- Function
similar to
mast cells.
Differentiat
e into
macrophage
s,
osteoclasts,
etc.
- Increase
production
during viral
infections
- Recognize
and respond to
antigens
- In tissues,
associated with
immune
system
- Capable of
recirculating;
can enter CTs
or lymphatic
vessels
3 different
types:
1) Bone
- Stops bleeding
into sub-
endothelial CTs
- Hyalomere:
contractile
component
- Chromomere:
1) Dense-
colored
granules:
serotonin
(vasoconstrictor)
and histamine
(vasodilator)
2) Alpha
granules:
includes
fibrinogens that
help with
clotting and
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