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Midterm

midterm study guide

31 Pages
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Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOC32H3
Professor
Silverman- Gavrila, Lorelei( Lori)

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B32 midterm
Lecture 1
in vivo - use of nonhuman animals in experiments
earliest reference to animal testing is Greek - Aristotle
model species - organism studied by many researchers
- mice - transgenic - inherited disease share 99% genes with humans
rats - physiology toxicology, cancer
rabbits - antibodies
primates - AIDS, hepatitis, behavior reprod, genetics
cats - neurological research
dogs - human diseases in cardiology, endocrinology, bone/joint study
- squid - giant axon
c elegans - each cell is known
THREE R'S - reduction, replacement, refinement - use fewer animals, preferred use
of nonanimal methods, methods that alleviate/minimize pain
claude bernard - father of physiology - in favor of vivisection (animal testing)
xenotransplantation - transplanting tissues/organs from one species to another
lecture 2
spallanzani extraceted gastric juices from animals, mixed with food to see effects - milk
curdle, meat soften
beaumont - patient fistula - extracted gastric juices at diff times
acidity in stomach not enough for digestion, stomach neutral until after feeding
pepsin- causes digestion
BERIBERY - rice - loss nerve muscle function - THIAMIN DEFICIENCY (B vitamin)
SCURVY - deterioration of connective tissue - VITAMIN C DEFICIENCY
www.notesolution.com
RICKETS - vitamin D deficiency - bad calcium/phosphate absorption - bendy knees
assimilation - process of nutrient acquisition and absorption
GI TRACT CONTINUOUS WITH EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT
involves - neurosensory processes, capturing, digestion, chemical processing, egestion
by touch, smell, sight food stimulates digestion
nutrients - imported across epithelial surface - mostly across ep of GI tract
nutrients degraded to liberate chem energy
essential nutrients - must be obtained from diet - most vitamins
nonessential - produced by other molecules
ENERGY CONTENT - must match metabolic demands of animal - in joules/ calories
CALORIC EQUIVALENT - energy content of a gram of some macromolecule
FAT - 9KCAL/GRAM, PROTEIN/CARBS - 4KCAL/GRAM
types of energy
gross energy - what you start off with
indigestible energy - excreted in feces (dietary fibers)
digestible energy - can be broken down
unmetabolizable energy - excreted in urine (excess vitamins etc)
metabolizable energy - supports maintenance growth, reproduction
SDA ( specific dynamic action ) - = HEAT INCREMENT - ENERGY USED TO
DIGEST FOOD - important source of THERMAL ENERGY
net energy - used for other activities
VITAMINS
www.notesolution.com
- many participate in catalysis - as cofactors for enzymes
categorized based on solubility (fat soluble = ADEK water soluble = B,C)
obtained in diet OR FROM SYMBIOTIC BACTERIA IN GI tract - most mammals
have bacteria that produce VITAMIN C (not humans)
MINERALS
metallic - participate in PROTEIN STRUCTURE
Ca, P,Fe,Cu,Zn
aquatic animals obtain them from h2o transport across gills
most aborbed from diet by TRANSPORTERS
females need more iron than males
AMINO ACIDS
20 - 8 essential - obtained from diet - IS LE LY ME PHE THRE TRY AND VAL
- deficiency in amino acids = SLOW GROWTH, DEVELOPMENTAL DEFECTS
protein quality - amino acid profile of the protein - ANIMAL TISSUE HIGHER
PROTEIN QUALITY - some plants lack aa's - corn lacks lyseine, wheat tryptophan
FATTY ACIDS
animals can make almost all fatty acids from ACETYL CO A
cant make enough omaga 3, omega 6
omega 3 = linoleic acid - in fish and plant seed oils
omega 6 - linoleic acid - major oils - plam, soybeal, sunflower oil
digestive enzymes - convert macromocs to forms that can be absorbed, processed
lipases - triglyceride lipases break triglycerides, , phospholipases phospholipids into fatty
acids
proteases - TRYPSIN, CHEMOTYRYSIN - break proteins into shorter polypeps
www.notesolution.com

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Description
B32 midterm Lecture 1 in vivo - use of nonhuman animals in experiments earliest reference to animal testing is Greek - Aristotle model species - organism studied by many researchers - mice - transgenic - inherited disease share 99% genes with humans rats - physiology toxicology, cancer rabbits - antibodies primates - AIDS, hepatitis, behavior reprod, genetics cats - neurological research dogs - human diseases in cardiology, endocrinology, bone/joint study - squid - giant axon c elegans - each cell is known THREE RS - reduction, replacement, refinement - use fewer animals, preferred use of nonanimal methods, methods that alleviate/minimize pain claude bernard - father of physiology - in favor of vivisection (animal testing) xenotransplantation - transplanting tissues/organs from one species to another lecture 2 spallanzani extraceted gastric juices from animals, mixed with food to see effects - milk curdle, meat soften beaumont - patient fistula - extracted gastric juices at diff times acidity in stomach not enough for digestion, stomach neutral until after feeding pepsin- causes digestion BERIBERY - rice - loss nerve muscle function - THIAMIN DEFICIENCY (B vitamin) SCURVY - deterioration of connective tissue - VITAMIN C DEFICIENCY www.notesolution.com RICKETS - vitamin D deficiency - bad calcium/phosphate absorption - bendy knees assimilation- process of nutrient acquisition and absorption GI TRACT CONTINUOUS WITH EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT involves - neurosensory processes, capturing, digestion, chemical processing, egestion by touch, smell, sight food stimulates digestion nutrients - imported across epithelial surface - mostly across ep of GI tract nutrients degraded to liberate chem energy essential nutrients - must be obtained from diet - most vitamins nonessential - produced by other molecules ENERGY CONTENT - must match metabolic demands of animal - in joules/ calories CALORIC EQUIVALENT - energy content of a gram of some macromolecule FAT - 9KCAL/GRAM, PROTEIN/CARBS - 4KCAL/GRAM types of energy gross energy - what you start off with indigestible energy - excreted in feces (dietary fibers) digestible energy - can be broken down unmetabolizable energy - excreted in urine (excess vitamins etc) metabolizable energy - supports maintenance growth, reproduction SDA ( specific dynamic action ) - = HEAT INCREMENT - ENERGY USED TO DIGEST FOOD - important source of THERMAL ENERGY net energy - used for other activities VITAMINS www.notesolution.com - many participate in catalysis - as cofactors for enzymes categorized based on solubility (fat soluble = ADEK water soluble = B,C) obtained in diet OR FROM SYMBIOTIC BACTERIA IN GI tract - most mammals have bacteria that produce VITAMIN C (not humans) MINERALS metallic - participate in PROTEIN STRUCTURE Ca, P,Fe,Cu,Zn aquatic animals obtain them from h2o transport across gills most aborbed from diet by TRANSPORTERS females need more iron than males AMINO ACIDS 20 - 8 essential - obtained from diet - IS LE LY ME PHE THRE TRY AND VAL - deficiency in amino acids = SLOW GROWTH, DEVELOPMENTAL DEFECTS protein quality - amino acid profile of the protein - ANIMAL TISSUE HIGHER PROTEIN QUALITY - some plants lack aas - corn lacks lyseine, wheat tryptophan FATTY ACIDS animals can make almost all fatty acids from ACETYL CO A cant make enough omaga 3, omega 6 omega 3 = linoleic acid - in fish and plant seed oils omega 6 - linoleic acid - major oils - plam, soybeal, sunflower oil digestive enzymes - convert macromocs to forms that can be absorbed, processed lipases - triglyceride lipases break triglycerides, , phospholipases phospholipids into fatty acids proteases - TRYPSIN, CHEMOTYRYSIN - break proteins into shorter polypeps www.notesolution.com peptidases cleave amino acids from the ENDS of polypeps (aminopeptidase - n terminal, carboxy - c terminal) amylases - dextrinase, glucoamylase - break polysaccs into oligosaccs - disaccharidases (maltase, sucrase,lactase) break down disaccs nucleases - break DNA into nucleotides, then nucleosides and notrogenous bases no lactase = lactose intolerance - cant break down lactoes (dissacaride) MOST DIGESTION TAKES PLACE EXTRACELLULARLY NUTRIENT TRANSPORT by protein carriers or via vesicles protein carriers - polar mocs (AMINO ACIDS, MONOSACCS) need protein transporters ( cant get through membrane) -transported down conc gradient (facilitated diffusion egrotein for glucose) - transported against conc gradient - active transport ( via NA DEPENDENT COTRANSPORTERS) vesicles uptake - pinocytosis or phagocytosis (pino for nutrients in solution) expulsion - exocytosis - eg lipoproteins carb breakdown and absorption - polysacs (glycogen, starch, cellulose, chitin) and disaccs (sucrose, lactose, maltose) -poly, disaccs broken to MONSACCS - GLUCOSE FRUCTOSE, GALACTOSE - by amylases and disaccaridases monosaccs absorbed by EPITHELIAL CELLS in intestine (ENTEROCYTES) by active trans/fac diff active transport -GLUCOSE AND GALACTOSE www.notesolution.com
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