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Chapetr 4

Biological Sciences
Course Code
Stephen Reid

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Chapter 4-Tissue level of organization
In keratinized stratified squamous epithelium, the apical surface layers are dead.
These cells lack nuclei and all organelles are filled with a tough, protective protein called
New cells are produced in the basal region of the epithelium and migrate to the apical surface
where they fill wit h keratin, lose their organelles and die.
Therefore, there is a tradeoff with keratin in that tissue becomes very strong but the cells
must die as a result!
The epidermis of the skin consists of keratinized stratified epithelium.
Nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium
The cells remain alive all the way to its apical surface and are kept moist with a covering of
Keratin- is a f ibrous intracellular protein is not present with in these cells
Therefore, all the cells are laive , and the f lattened nuclei chara cter of epithelium are visible
even in the most super f icial cells.
Found in oral cavity, part of pharynx= throat, the esophagus, vagina and the anus.
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