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BIOC54H3 (8)
Midterm

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61 Pages
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Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOC54H3
Professor
Maydianne Andrade

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LECTURE 1
Evolutionarily stable strategy - set of rules of behaviour that when adopted by a certain
proportion of the population can't be replaced by any alternative strategy
Why study animal behaviour
Know how to breed animals, when will animals attack, what characteristics are
needed in nature reserves to save endangered species, humane way to house
animals, stop damage by pest species...
OPOSSUMS
Play dead when scared - why?
Predator thinks dead, not appetizing
Not many scavengers around
Learned it was a good strategy (less likely to be killed by predators)
Inherited behaviour from ancestors
Pass out from terror
TWO CATEGORIES OF QUESTIONS
PROXIMATE/ULTIMATE CAUSATION
PROXIMATE
How - physiological/cognitive mechanisms
Developmental processes (ontogeny [see others doing it so you do it too], genetics)
Eg - possums play dead because the sight of a predator triggers a physiological
response that causes them to lie down and remain motionless
ULTIMATE causes
Why questions - evolutionary history (origins, change over time)
Effects on fitness (current or recent function)
Eg - possums play dead because over evolutionary time, those possums that did play
dead were more fit than those that did not
www.notesolution.com
4 LEVELS OF ANALYSIS - complementary answers to the question WHAT CAUSES
ANIMAL A TO EXHIBIT TRAIT X?
1.Mechanistic reasons (how does it work)
2.Ontogenic reasons (how does the trait develop during a lifetime)
3.Fitness consequences (is it favoured by natural selection and why)
4.Origins (what were the evolutionary precursors to this trait)
An answer at 1 level of analysis does not rule out answers at another level!!!
Eg - why is this man smiling
Mechanistic - neurons fire in brain, causes facial muscle contractions
Ontogeny - learn when to smile in the right context by adults (as baby smile only asd reflex
- adults teach babies to smile in response to people
Function (fitness consequences) - smiling makes you more attractive to opposite sex
Origin - originated as social signal that you are not dangerous to another person
FOCUS IS FUNCTION ( fitness)
DARWIN'S POSTULATES
1.Variation exists among individuals in a species
2.Some variations are heritable
3.Not all individuals survive
4.Survival and reprod are NOT RANDOM - individuals with fabvorable
traits produce more offspring
Animals posess traits that MAXIMIZE FITNESS!!
Traits that lead to increased success become more common in populations
Evolution by natural selection predicts animals posses traits that
MAXIMIZE LIFETIME REPRODUCTIVE SUCCESS
FITNESS
www.notesolution.com
Relative contribution of genes to future generations
Lifetime reprod success relative to competitors
MEASURED BY
Factors that are related to fitness (difficult to measure fitness directly)
Survival to breeding, mating success, # offspring per season, total offspring,
susceptibility to disease, number of parasites, prey captured... RELATIVE to others
in the population
BEHAVIORS CAN EVOLVE - leads to adaptive behaviours!! (behaviours that
increase fitness)
ASSUMPTION THAT BEHAVIORS EVOLVE TO INCREASE REPROD
SUCCESS
Behaviours evolve when
1.They are variable within the population
2.Variants are heritable
3.Behaviour effects LIFETIME REPRODUCTIVE SUCCESS
Evolution of BEHAVIOR by nat selection leads to adaptive behaviours that increase
reprod of those that posess them relative to competitors
Hypothesis testing
Asking questions about behaviour using the scientific method
Generate many competing hypotheses (AT ONE LEVEL OF ANALYSIS), outline
predictions (if...then), test predictions, make conclusions about hypotheses
INFANTICIDE
Langurs (monkeys)
2 types of troops (all male group, male female mix group [25 female relatives, 1-3
adult males])
When they encounter eachother they are very aggressive
www.notesolution.com

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Description
LECTURE 1 Evolutionarily stable strategy - set of rules of behaviour that when adopted by a certain proportion of the population cant be replaced by any alternative strategy Why study animal behaviour Know how to breed animals, when will animals attack, what characteristics are needed in nature reserves to save endangered species, humane way to house animals, stop damage by pest species... OPOSSUMS Play dead when scared - why? Predator thinks dead, not appetizing Not many scavengers around Learned it was a good strategy (less likely to be killed by predators) Inherited behaviour from ancestors Pass out from terror TWO CATEGORIES OF QUESTIONS PROXIMATEULTIMATE CAUSATION PROXIMATE How - physiologicalcognitive mechanisms Developmental processes (ontogeny [see others doing it so you do it too], genetics) Eg - possums play dead because the sight of a predator triggers a physiological response that causes them to lie down and remain motionless ULTIMATE causes Why questions - evolutionary history (origins, change over time) Effects on fitness (current or recent function) Eg - possums play dead because over evolutionary time, those possums that did play dead were more fit than those that did not www.notesolution.com 4 LEVELS OF ANALYSIS - complementary answers to the question WHAT CAUSES ANIMAL A TO EXHIBIT TRAIT X? 1. Mechanistic reasons (how does it work) 2. Ontogenic reasons (how does the trait develop during a lifetime) 3. Fitness consequences (is it favoured by natural selection and why) 4. Origins (what were the evolutionary precursors to this trait) An answer at 1 level of analysis does not rule out answers at another level!!! Eg - why is this man smiling Mechanistic - neurons fire in brain, causes facial muscle contractions Ontogeny - learn when to smile in the right context by adults (as baby smile only asd reflex - adults teach babies to smile in response to people Function (fitness consequences) - smiling makes you more attractive to opposite sex Origin - originated as social signal that you are not dangerous to another person FOCUS IS FUNCTION ( fitness) DARWINS POSTULATES 1. Variation exists among individuals in a species 2. Some variations are heritable 3. Not all individuals survive 4. Survival and reprod are NOT RANDOM - individuals with fabvorable traits produce more offspring Animals posess traits that MAXIMIZE FITNESS!! Traits that lead to increased success become more common in populations Evolution by natural selection predicts animals posses traits that MAXIMIZE LIFETIME REPRODUCTIVE SUCCESS FITNESS www.notesolution.com Relative contribution of genes to future generations Lifetime reprod success relative to competitors MEASURED BY Factors that are related to fitness (difficult to measure fitness directly) Survival to breeding, mating success, # offspring per season, total offspring, susceptibility to disease, number of parasites, prey captured... RELATIVE to others in the population BEHAVIORS CAN EVOLVE - leads to adaptive behaviours!! (behaviours that increase fitness) ASSUMPTION THAT BEHAVIORS EVOLVE TO INCREASE REPROD SUCCESS Behaviours evolve when 1. They are variable within the population 2. Variants are heritable 3. Behaviour effects LIFETIME REPRODUCTIVE SUCCESS Evolution of BEHAVIOR by nat selection leads to adaptive behaviours that increase reprod of those that posess them relative to competitors Hypothesis testing Asking questions about behaviour using the scientific method Generate many competing hypotheses (AT ONE LEVEL OF ANALYSIS), outline predictions (if...then), test predictions, make conclusions about hypotheses INFANTICIDE Langurs (monkeys) 2 types of troops (all male group, male female mix group [25 female relatives, 1-3 adult males]) When they encounter eachother they are very aggressive www.notesolution.com
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