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Biological Sciences
Ivana Stehlik

What statement about the protonema is false? a. It is haploid b. It is photosynthetic c. The spermatophyte develops from it d. It is the product of a germinated spore e. It is a chain of cells that forms a stage of a bryophyte life cycle protonema is haploid phase, earliest stage when a moss first grows from the spore. It grows a protonema which develop into gametophyte. Liverworts do not have a protonemal stage, spores germinate directly into gametopyte. Juvenile gametophyte=protonema(algae-like) absent from hornworts. Protonema is unicellular, photosynthetic part of germinating fern spore. Spermatophyte: seed plant: any flowering plants (angiosperms) & conifer (gymnosperm). Not spores. Use pollen What groups of plants have self-propelled spermatozoids-motile male gamete produced by nonflowering plants. Haploid-? a. Mosses, lycophytes and gymnosperms b. Mosses, lycophytes and ferns c. Only ferns and gymnosperms d. Only gymnosperms and angiosperms e. Only lycophytes(type of club mosses) and ferns What is the correct evolutionary sequence (from oldest to youngest) of the following branches of the tree of life in plants? a. Lycophytes, ferns, eudicots, gymnosperms, monocots b. Ferns, lycophytes, gymnosperms, monocots, eudicots c. Ferns, lycophytes, gymnosperms, monocots, eudicots d. Lycophytes, ferns, gymnosperms, monocots, eudicots e. Lycophytes, ferns, gymnosperms, eudicots, monocots 1 The following description applies to one specific cell type. Which one? This cell type is alive at maturity, and its cell walls are stiffened typically in their corners. This cell type is used as support in plant shoots or associated with vascular bundles. a. collenchyma-cell with thin primary wall that retain protoplasm b. sclerenchyma-cell with lignified secondary wall that lose protoplasm at maturity (dead) c. meristems-undifferentiated cell d. parenchyma-cell with thin primary wall that retain protopaslm e. chlorenchyma-parenchyma with chloroplast What makes a prune shine after rubbing it on your pants (and before biting into it)? a. sclerenchyma cells-used for support and has thick cell. It makes up 90% of cell volume. b. epidermis cells- c. guard cells d. cuticle-waxy layer. e. hairs Which of the following is NOT a secondary meristem? 2 a. Vascular cambium-phloem& xylem b. Ground meristem-found in vascular plants, used to store food. Made of parenchyma, sclerenchyma, chorenchyma. c. Axillary meristem-secondary growth meristem d. Cork cambium-lateral meristem. Found between cork & primary phloem. It replaces epidermis in roots & stems. It is found in herbaceous dicots, gymnosperms, some monocots. e. Root apical meristem-primary meristem. 3 What type of dispersal is associated with the following description of a seed? This seed is relatively small (under 0.5 cm in diameter), it is produced by a herb in the forest of the Morningside Ravine and it has an attached body rich in lipids. a. Anemochory-seed dispersal by wind b. Myrmecochory-seed dispersal by ants through elaisomes-rich in lipid c. Autochory-explodes d. Endozoochory-poop e. Exozoochory-hook on fur Which of the following can provide food for the developing embryo? a. Angiosperm-flowering plant b. Exosperm c. Endosperm-food for embryo d. Elaiosperm-rich in lipid structure used for myrmecochory. e. Elaiosome What statement about double fertilization is false? a. It is specific to angiosperms-contains embryo and central cell. Embryo is 2n diploid after fertilization. Central cell 3n after fertilization b. One of the two male gametophytic nuclei shuttled from the pollen to the ovule by means of the pollen tube fertilizes the egg cell and the other fertilizes the central cell c. Double fertilization leads to the initiation of the endosperm d. It refers to the parallel union between a haploid sperm nucleus and the haploid egg and the haploid sperm nucleus and the diploid central cell e. All of the above statements are correct In which of the following sexual system is selfing not possible? a. Dioecy-one male plant, one female plant b. Monoecy-one female&one male flower in one plant c. Diandry-one egg fertilized by two sperm=miscarriage d. Hermaphroditism-monoecy plant in angiosperms e. Monandry –having one stamen What specific floral adaptation does the following description stand for? The male and female sexual organs are separated from each other by some minimum distance to minimize selfing, but still located within the same flower. a. Dioecy-one male plant, one female plant. b. Herkogamy-hermaphroditic angiosperm using spatial separation c. Dichogamy-changes from female to male plant or from male to female plant at some point of life. d. Self-incompatibility-biochemical mechanism that limits selfing e. Monoecy-one female and one male flower in one plant 4 Which of the labeled tissues is secondary phloem? a. 1apical meristem b. 2 c. 3 Primary growth-elongation d. 4 ShootApical meristem e. 5 Procambium Protoderm Ground meristem Epidermis Cortex-parenchyma, and some collenchyma. 1. Vascular cambium 2. 1)primary phloem(darkblue) 2)
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