BIOC38 - Final Exam Notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Ivana Stehlik

BIOC38 Final Lecture 13-14: Plants that Feed the World II - Roots and roots: sugar beet, potato, cassava, sweet potato - True vs. False Roots ??? slide 4 - Roots and Tubers: o Roots Sugar beet (Mediterranean) Cassava (SA) Sweet Potato (Africa, Asia) o Stems Main stem shapes runners, rhizomes, tubers Potato (peru): 4000-5000 YBP Tuber Yam (Africa, Asia) Tuber - Fruits: o Fruit and Vegetable: two contexts Fruit botanical term seed containing (reproductive) structures of the plants Fruit culinary term sweet, succulent plant structure, edible in raw state Vegetable strictly culinary term with no botanical definition non-sweet, fibrous and often green structure o Tomato, banana, grapes, orange, apple - Vegetables: o Cabbage: Brassica Oleracea cabbage of the vegetable garden Mediterranean and atlantic coasts B. O. Var. acephala cabbage of the vegetable garden without a head roman empire selection for larger and more succulent leaves KALE B. O. var. Capitata with a head roman empire selection for larger and more succulent apical (main) bud B. O. var. capitata forma rubra the red kind green cabbage turns to red cabbage B. O. var. caulorapa stem turnip Germany selection for larger and more succulent stem basis Var. Botrytis resembling a bunch of grapes Mediterranean selection for flower buds CAULIFLOWER Var. italic italien Italy selection for flower buds and stem BROCOLLI Var. gemmifera bearing gems Belgium selection for leaf buds BRUSEEL SPROUTS Brassica rapa: V. pekinensis Chinese cabbage V. chinensis bok choy V. rapa turnip - Legumes/Pulses: o Produce seeds in pods Symbiotic relationship with rhizobium bacteria inhabits nodules on plant roots Bacteria convert atmospheric N into plant usable N Poor mans meat!!! rich in N building block of protein o Domesticated legumes Beans, peanut, peas, lentils, etc. Common bean: Spread throughout the Americas by time Columbus arrived Hug # of varieties! Most versatile of all legumes shape and color of pod and bean Classified according to growth habit and use o Pole types - ? o Bush types -? o Snap (fresh or green) beans harvested before maturity, eaten fresh o Dry beans harvested after maturity, dried, seeds need to be cooked first Peanut: Flowers abode ground after pollination, flower stalk pushes fruit into soil Fruit matures underground! Seeds contains 45-50% oil, 25-35 protein 50% of US crop used for peanut butter! Plant the world thirsts after! Peas: Snap peas, snow pea, split pea Lentils: Third highest level of protein of any plant-based food (after soybean and hemp) Important part of the diet in India (large vegetarian population) Chickpea: Kabuli Canada Desi India, Middle East Azuki/Red Bean: Paste commonly eaten as a sweet in Japan or China Soybean: Poor mans meat 5-10x more protein per area, compared to if animals were fed by greens produced in the same area Huge variety of soy products o Whole pods (edamame) o Tofu o Oil o Powder Soybean, tofu and yuba production: o Soybeans wash and cook, separate the residue and soymilk Residue okara Soymilk: Heat, film forming, fold/roll yuba Coagulant, curding breaking, forming, pressing tofu Fermented product: soy sauce (japan) o Fermented soybeans (and wheat) in brine, with mold fungus o Followed by yeast fermentation Fermented: Tempeh (Indonesia) o Fermentation binds soybeans into a cake form firm vegetarian burger Fermented: Miso (japan) o Seasoning paste o Fermented by mold Textured vegetable protein: cheap, non-fat meat-analogue, used to stretch meat o Side-product from oil extraction from soy - Plants that feed Ontario: o Ontario First Nations villages: slide 63!! Preparation of the fields, mens work: Prep. Of the fields, womens work: o Three sister agriculture: Polyculture of corn, beans and squash interplanting Sacred threesome universal among native agricultural peoples of the Americas Mutually beneficial effects: Higher N levels (roots of beans, symbiosis with N-fixing rhizobium bacteria) Reduced weed through squash Increased resistance to pests Corn: Staple in each season!! Corn crop failure = starvation! Highest caloric content, easily storable 100 corn to 1 bean, remains Beans less productive than corn but better storable than squash Squash only available during few months, few calories o Agricultural tasks throughout the year: Seed selection select largest seeds (larger and more fertile corn) Pre-soak seeds in longhouse extends growing season Create mound poke hole into soil with stick seedlings planted into mound Corn = natural pole one bean into every 7 corn hill Lecture 15-16: Plants that Please the Palate - What is a spice? Culinary Term o Any dried fragrant, aromatic, or pungent vegetable or plant substance, in the whole, broken or ground form, that contributes flavor. - Spices typically tropical plants, often flower organs or derived from flowers - Herbs small temperate, often Mediterranean plants, often leaves but also seeds - Incense aromatic materials, release fragrant smoke when burned - Plant defense against herbivory: two main types of defense o Weapons: physical defense Thorns and spines cactus Passive hiding camaflouge Active hiding tickle me plant, when you touch it, it wilts Mimosa Pudica o Toxins: chemical defense (secondary compounds) Primary compounds products of photosynthesis, protein synthesis o Carbohydrates, proteins, starches, cellulose o Essential to normal cellular function and life in general Secondary compounds products have no known direct function in basic metabolism Phenolics discourage germs/herbivores; low toxicity Intense smells and flavors 2 groups: flavonoids & anthocyanins Terpenoids discourage germs/herbivores; low toxicity Intense smells and flavors Glycosides discourage germs/herbivores; toxic Alkaloids discourage germs/herbivores, bitter, toxic - Spice = high concentration of secondary compounds, toxins o Enhancement of flavor and palatability of food (enjoyment) o Anise o Caraway o Coriander o Poison hemlock - Paracelsus all things are poisonous; only the dose permits something not to be poisonous - Why are spices used? Evolutionary reason? o Spices applied to surfaces place where micro-organisms grow (exposure) - Antimicrobial hypothesis: predictions o Spices should kill or inhibit food-spoilage microorganisms Mostly sufficient to yield useful antibacterial effect Lemon/lime low pH synergism with other spices Pepper also synergistic with other spices AND powerful antioxidant Synergism between spices: Chili powder Oriental five spice
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