Terms for Midterm

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Biological Sciences
Marc Cadotte

Terms for Midterm Ecology: is the scientific study of interactions between organisms and their environment. Ecologists evaluate competing hypotheses about natural systems with experiments, observations, and models Space-spatial scale: ▯ Small spatial scale: soil microorganisms ▯ Large spatial scale: atmospheric pollutants Time-temporal scale: ▯ Short temporal scale: leaf response to sunlight ▯ Long temporal scale: how species chance over geologic time Climate: long-term description of weather, based on averages and variation measured over decades. Determines the geographic distribution of organisms Evapotranspiration: is the sum of water loss through transpiration by plants and evaporation from the soil. Evapotranspiration transfers energy (as latent heat) and water into the atmosphere, thereby affecting air temperature and moisture Albedo: reflected radiation from surface. Removing trees increase the albedo of land surface, lowering its absorption of solar radiation Sensible heat loss: direct heat loss. Direct transfer of energy between two substances. The change in surface roughness increases sensible heat loss by convection (wind) Latent heat loss: via change in state. These cooling effects are more than offset by the warming effects of decreased latent heat loss by evapotranspiration. Reduced evapotranspiration also reduces the return of moisture to the atmosphere and reduces precipitation rates Biosphere: the zone of life on earth. It lies between the lithosphere- Earthʼs surface crust and upper mantle, and the troposphere- the lowest layer of atmosphere Terrestrial biomes: are characterized by the dominant growth forms of vegetation. Are classified by the growth form of the most abudant plant (the morphology) Biomes: are large biological communities shaped by the physical environment, particularly climatic variation. Based on similarities in the morphological responses of organisms to the physical environment Deciduousness: seasonal shedding of leaves Succulence: development of fleshy water storage tissues Lentic water: stationary water Iodic water: flowing water Euphotic zone: thereʼs enough light for photosynthesis Littoral zone: near shore, where photic zone reaches the bottom. Macrophytes occur here Marine biological zone: determined by ocean depth, light availability, and the statbility of the bottom substratum Pelagic zone: the open ocean beyond the continental shelves. Supports the highest densities of organisms, extends to about 200m depth Nekton: swimming organisms capable of overcoming ocean currents. Eg. fish, mammals, sea turtles, squid, octopus Phytoplankton: green algae, diatoms, dinoflagellates, and cyanobacteria Zooplankton: protists (eg. ciliates), crustaceans (eg. copepods and krill), and jellyfishes Gross primary production (GPP): total amount of carbon fixed by autotrophs in an ecosystem. GPP depends on the influence of climate on photosynthetic rate and the leaf area index Leaf area index (LAI): leaf area per unit of ground area Net primary production (NPP): GPP - respiration. Represents the biomass gained by the plant. Is the energy left over for plant growth and consuption by detrivores and herbivores. Represents the storage of carbon in ecosystems NDVI: normalized difference vegetation index, uses the difference between visible light (VIS) and near-infrared (NIR) reflectance to estimate the absorption of light by chlrophyll Exploitation: a relationship in which one organism benefits by feeding on, and thus directly harming, another Secondary production: energy derived from consumption of organic compounds that were produced by other organisms Net secondary production: ingestion - respiration - egestion Herbivore: eats the tissue or internal fluids of living plants or algae Predator: kills and eats other organisms, referred to as prey Parasite: lives in or on another organism (its host), feeding on parts of it. Usually they donʼt kill the host Herbivores: consume plants and algae Carnivores: consume other live animals Detritivores: consume dead organic matter (detritus) Omnivores: consume both plants and animals Parasitoids: are insects that lay an egg on or in another insect host. After hatching, larva remain in the host, which they eat and usually kill Secondary compounds: are chemicals that reduce herbivory. Some are toxic to herbivores (eg. spices), others attrach p
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