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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Kamini Persaud

Lec 6  William ‘s principal: investment int eh present comes at the cost of investment in thef ture o LRS=PS+FS  PS: based on RE( reproductive effort)  FS: based on somatic effct(SE)  Precocial: young---r selection o Altricial young-K selection ( king!)  William trivial hypothesis o Mother in higher social rank moiré likely to have sons  Tirvers ‘s PI theory o Anything done by the parent for the oioffsrping that increase their’ chance of survival , while decrease the paretns’s ability to invest in oterh sooffsring  R*b needs to be >c , for the paretnt to keep on investing in parentnin ghte current offpsing, instead of withholding the resources for another round of reproducitng and parenting the fugure offsirng Lect 7   Prinsoner’s dilemma o Guppies’s leaoping frogging behavior when in face of predatoion  Leaving in a group, more likely to encounter the person another time, so better cooperature, insetae of defect  DC>CC>DD>CD  TM: Hanmilton’s rule o Of inclusive finess ( direct fitness, plus indirect fitness) o Keeps on helopuig each other, as long as r*b>c ( same as when to switch parenting to antother round of offspring) . Hamilton's Rule (of Inclusive Fitness): Other ways of thinking about it ...  You will help an individual (whether it be protecting them, feeding them, etc.) as long as the benefit to them, devalued by the degree of relatedness between you, is greater than the cost to you.  When you help out individual, you’re not just going to weight the benefit you are giving them equally with the cost you are paying! You’re going to re-weight the benefit by the probability that they share your genes.  The more distantly related an individual is, the less cost you are willing to pay to benefit them. Conversely, the more closely related they are, the more you are willing to sacrifice to help them Lec 8  Optimal foraging theory o What are the factosr to consider when you forage ?  Profitability =energy value/handling time o When to move onto the next patch?  Marginal value theorem  Stay in current until ‘marginal food intake’=’average rate of intake across all other patches  Distance and tiem you should spend on the current one  The quality of the current patch and time spent on the current one o What’s the optimal foraging stragety ( eat locally or carry home( when predators arondm?  Carry home, when predators around  So when predoat aroudns, less efficient of food intake o European jay is best in spatial memory in food stroing  Related to hippocampus, need to memorize hwere the food is, and where they store it  Caise they can form ‘search image ‘ for their prey  But need to be a specialized one o Taste aversion learning  Not to be found in specialist bat(vampire bat)  Never learn the relation between poinson and taste, cause their brain is not wired to differtiate between tastes( which one tastes better, or more pleasant, or more beneficial, cause they only eat one flavor)  Anti detection o Industrial melanism –in peppered mtoh  Nothing cause the colour change to happen, but the change in the enviorument  So the more adaptable, less conspicuous , survive, and hence increae in fq in population  But they themselves didn’t do anthing to their body   This is different from body decorating ---camouflaging behavior  Anti-eaten o Mullerian mimicry ( MM-is the g
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