Human Physiology: An Integrated Approach 5th Ed. - Ch. 4

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Biological Sciences

Chapter 4 Notes Energy = essential for biological processes to maintain life o wo E, cells would not be able to: grow be repaired and be maintained Energy in Biological Systems living organisms must use energy in order for their cells to grow, make new parts, and reproduce o plants trap E from the sun through the process of photosynthesis and stores it in chemical-bonds they also get essential molecules from CO 2 the soil, and water to make biomolecules like glucose and AAs o Animals must INGEST the biomolecules of plants or other animals in order to import chemical-bond E so, in actuality, all animals ultimately get their E from the sun that was trapped by photosynthesis Animals EXTRACT the E contained in biomolecules through the process of respiration, which consumes O 2nd produces CO and2 water Excess E is stored in chemical bonds mainly in glycogen (glucose polymer) and lipid molecules (in animals) Concept Check 1. Amino acids and nucleic acids always include nitrogen in their chemical makeup. Energy is used to perform work Energy: the capacity to do work o work (in biological systems) means one of three specific things: chemical work the making and breaking of chemical bonds allows cells and organisms to grow, maintain an appropriate internal environment, and store info needed for reproduction and other activities transport work enables cells to move ions, molecules, and larger particles through the cell membrane and membranes of organelles in the cell useful for creating concentration gradients when therere more molecules on one side of a membrane than there are on the other side mechanical work used for movement (in animals) @the microscopic level, movement can include organelles moving around inside of a cell & flagella and cilia beating @the macroscopic level, movement usually involves muscle contraction most mechanical work is brought about by motor proteins that make up certain IC fibres and filaments of the cytoskeleton o All organisms obtain, store, and use E to fuel their activities Energy comes in two forms: kinetic and potential All types of E are able to appear in 2 forms: o Kinetic E: the E of motion o Potential E: stored E o All types of E have the ability of PE to become KE and vice versa Energy can be converted from one form to another
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