Annotated Bibliography: Effects of Pollution
Environmental Planning is evaluating the relationship between the ecosystem and our
community development. It is the process of providing and maintaining a well-balanced
planetary and organic life cycle, as well as a healthy neighbourhood. In today’s society,
pollution is one of the largest problems that cause health problems to humans, disturbance in the
habitat and lifestyle of animals, and damages to property and water resources. Several types of
pollution that raises an issue to our economy includes urban air pollution, agricultural pollution,
oil spills, untreated sewage and water contamination, and also radioactive waste. Environmental
Planning aids our community by assessing the problems that affect our world and determining
what we can do to help protect and flourish our surroundings.
Bove, F J and Fulcomer, M C and Klotz, J B and Esmart, J and Dufficy, E M and Savrin, J E.
“Public Drinking Water Contamination and Birth Outcomes.” American Journal of
Epidemiology 141.9 (1995): 850-862. Print.
The authors evaluate the relationship between the public drinking water contamination
and birth outcomes in this article. “80,938 live births and 594 fetal deaths that occurred
during the period 1985-1988 were studied” (850) in order to conclude that water
contamination does have a negative effect on birth outcomes. Several outcomes of birth
from drinking contaminated water includes small for gestational age (SGA), low birth Lai 2
weight, preterm birth, birth defects, spontaneous abortions, and fetal deaths. It is stated
that nitrates and nitrites are nitrogen-based chemicals that exist naturally in water, soil,
plants, and food. However, studies show that consumption of high level concentrated
nitrates and nitrites can be fatal to infants. If consumed by pregnant women, this process
may interfere with the ability of the fetus’s blood to carry oxygen, which can lead to a
blood disorder called methemoglobinemia. This article is very valuable as it has many
statistics and studies about birth outcomes; nevertheless, this article may be challenging
to understand for those who are not in the science field. Also, I agree that the
continuation of development and implement of new technologies to minimize
concentration of contaminants is essential to our world.
Kampa, Marilena and Castanas, Elias. “Human Health Effects of Air Pollution.” Environmental
Pollution 151.2 (2008): 362 – 367. Print.
Kampa and Castanas examines that the anthropogenic activities are the major cause to
environmental air pollution. Numerous of hazardous chemicals are deposited into our
environment, through industrial facilities and other activities. In their introduction, they
state “an air pollutant may cause or contribute to an increase in mortality or serious
illness or may pose a present or potential hazard to human health” (362). In this article,
Kampa and Castanas identifies four pollutant categories and their impact on human
health. Firstly, the gaseous pollutants, usually caused by combustion of fossil fuels,
mainly affects the respiratory system that leads to stroke, infection, or even cancer in the
lungs. Secondly, persistent organic pollutants form toxic chemicals that affect our food-
chain since this exposure to plant and animals will severely harm their internal systems.
Moreover, heavy metals including lead, mercury, and manganese are transported by air Lai 3
into our water and food supply, which is eventually consumed by humans and overtime it
negatively influences our kidneys and the nervous system. Finally, particulate matter (air
pollutant), produced by natural and man-made activities, has negative cardiovascular and
respiratory effects. The authors access the types of pollutions and how they harm human
health. They establish research and prove that many causes of pollutants are due to
human activities. This article is very insightful and proves that environmental planning is
necessary to help prevent the decay of both human and animal health.
Mashhood Ahmad Khan and Arsalan Mujahid Ghouri. “Environmental Pollution: Its Effects on
Life and Its Remedies.” Researchers World: journal of arts science and commerce 2.2 (2011):
Mashhood and Arsalan analyzes the connection between environment pollution and the
health of human populations. This paper gives insight on the effects of environment
pollution, including air pollution, water, and land and soil waste pollution. They argue
that pollution is a human contributi