Assignment Bibliography.docx

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City Studies
Ahmed Allahwala

Lai 1 Fiona Lai 999852994 CITB01 Annotated Bibliography: Effects of Pollution Environmental Planning is evaluating the relationship between the ecosystem and our community development. It is the process of providing and maintaining a well-balanced planetary and organic life cycle, as well as a healthy neighbourhood. In today’s society, pollution is one of the largest problems that cause health problems to humans, disturbance in the habitat and lifestyle of animals, and damages to property and water resources. Several types of pollution that raises an issue to our economy includes urban air pollution, agricultural pollution, oil spills, untreated sewage and water contamination, and also radioactive waste. Environmental Planning aids our community by assessing the problems that affect our world and determining what we can do to help protect and flourish our surroundings. Bove, F J and Fulcomer, M C and Klotz, J B and Esmart, J and Dufficy, E M and Savrin, J E. “Public Drinking Water Contamination and Birth Outcomes.” American Journal of Epidemiology 141.9 (1995): 850-862. Print. The authors evaluate the relationship between the public drinking water contamination and birth outcomes in this article. “80,938 live births and 594 fetal deaths that occurred during the period 1985-1988 were studied” (850) in order to conclude that water contamination does have a negative effect on birth outcomes. Several outcomes of birth from drinking contaminated water includes small for gestational age (SGA), low birth Lai 2 weight, preterm birth, birth defects, spontaneous abortions, and fetal deaths. It is stated that nitrates and nitrites are nitrogen-based chemicals that exist naturally in water, soil, plants, and food. However, studies show that consumption of high level concentrated nitrates and nitrites can be fatal to infants. If consumed by pregnant women, this process may interfere with the ability of the fetus’s blood to carry oxygen, which can lead to a blood disorder called methemoglobinemia. This article is very valuable as it has many statistics and studies about birth outcomes; nevertheless, this article may be challenging to understand for those who are not in the science field. Also, I agree that the continuation of development and implement of new technologies to minimize concentration of contaminants is essential to our world. Kampa, Marilena and Castanas, Elias. “Human Health Effects of Air Pollution.” Environmental Pollution 151.2 (2008): 362 – 367. Print. Kampa and Castanas examines that the anthropogenic activities are the major cause to environmental air pollution. Numerous of hazardous chemicals are deposited into our environment, through industrial facilities and other activities. In their introduction, they state “an air pollutant may cause or contribute to an increase in mortality or serious illness or may pose a present or potential hazard to human health” (362). In this article, Kampa and Castanas identifies four pollutant categories and their impact on human health. Firstly, the gaseous pollutants, usually caused by combustion of fossil fuels, mainly affects the respiratory system that leads to stroke, infection, or even cancer in the lungs. Secondly, persistent organic pollutants form toxic chemicals that affect our food- chain since this exposure to plant and animals will severely harm their internal systems. Moreover, heavy metals including lead, mercury, and manganese are transported by air Lai 3 into our water and food supply, which is eventually consumed by humans and overtime it negatively influences our kidneys and the nervous system. Finally, particulate matter (air pollutant), produced by natural and man-made activities, has negative cardiovascular and respiratory effects. The authors access the types of pollutions and how they harm human health. They establish research and prove that many causes of pollutants are due to human activities. This article is very insightful and proves that environmental planning is necessary to help prevent the decay of both human and animal health. Mashhood Ahmad Khan and Arsalan Mujahid Ghouri. “Environmental Pollution: Its Effects on Life and Its Remedies.” Researchers World: journal of arts science and commerce 2.2 (2011): 276-280. Print. Mashhood and Arsalan analyzes the connection between environment pollution and the health of human populations. This paper gives insight on the effects of environment pollution, including air pollution, water, and land and soil waste pollution. They argue that pollution is a human contributi
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