CITB02 EXAM STUDY GUIDE
1. Outline the main characteristics of what geographer Richard Florida (2002) refers
to as the “Creative Class” According to Florida what factors make a city creative
and what role does creativity play in city-regional economic development? What
are some of the critiques raised against Florida’s creative class thesis and urban
development policies derived from it? Do you agree?
• Creative class basis is economic
• An economic class and he argues that its economic function both underpins and informs
its members social, cultural and lifestyle choices
• Consists of people who add economic value through their creativity
• Most members of the creative class do not own and control any property
• Their property is intangible since it stems from their creativity in their heads
• The distinguishing characteristic of the creative class is that its members engage in work
whose function is to create meaningful new forms
• Creative Class consists of 2 components
The super creative core- scientists engineers and profs
Though leadership of modern society: writers, editors, analysts
BUT BOTH ENGAGE IN THE CREATIVE PROCESS
Creative Class Values
• Individuality: the creative class do not want to conform to organizational or institutional
directives and resist traditional group-oriented norms
• Meritocracy: the creative class favours hard work, challenge and stimulation
Creative class value merit they do not find their status in their wealth
Creative class people are ambitious and want to move up based on their peers
• Diversity and Openness: seeking an environment open to differences
Even if they are not gay they ask for same-sex partner benefits
Many highly creative people grew up feeling like outsiders
However it failed to put an end to long-standing divisions of race and gender
2. What is gentrification? Discuss how gentrification is a process of informal
economic eviction and socio-cultural exclusion. Relate your reflections to the text
“Consuming Authenticity” by sociologist Sharon Zukin (2008). Is there an ethical
way to gentrify neighborhoods?
GENTRIFICATION • The process of change in an area resulting from an influx of wealthier people into less
• Artists and students often function as “pioneers” of gentrification;
• Rising housing prices lead to informal economic eviction of original residents;
• Changes in the dominant symbolic coding of the area lead to cultural displacement
• Changes in dominant land-use.
3. In the text “Social Exclusion and Space,” planning theorist Ali Madanipour (1998)
discusses how urban space is organized and spatial practices controlled and regulated.
Discuss the multiple dimensions of social exclusion and what Madanipour calls the
spatiality of social exclusion” Drawing from the report “The 3 Cities Within Toronto” by
David Hulchanski (2010), outline the dominant trends of socio-spatiality inequality in
Toronto today and their consequences.
4. Building on the text “Anglo-American Town Planning Theory Since 1945: Three
significant Developments but no Paradigm Shift” by planning theorist Nigel Taylor (1999),
identify and discuss significant shifts in the way town planning has been conceived. In
your answer, outline developments in planning theory associated with the rise of
postmodernism in Western thought and culture and discuss how these developments
might change the role and responsibilities of urban planners.
5. Drawing from the text “the design of Spaces: and the film “The Social Life of Small
Urban Spaces,” discuss the methodology developed by sociologist William Whyte (1988)
and his colleagues to study the design of urban public spaces. Based on Whyte’s
findings, what are the essential characteristics of a well-designed urban public space?
Discuss the social significance of the quality of outdo