CLAA05 The Literature of Ancient Egypt.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Classical Studies
P Ferguson

Sanchika K thNov 12 2012 CLAA05 The Literature of Ancient Egypt The Book of the Heavenly CowOldest extended mythical narrativeMajesty ReFather of the eldest gods NunDestruction of Mankind o Majesty has learned the plot devised against him by mankind o He summons the divine council o Mankind was made from Res tears o Re tells Nun he wants his opinion on what he would do before he goes and slays them o Re sends out his Eye to kill mankind whichis Hathor who then becomes SakhmetSakhmet destroys men in the desertDivine Drunkenness o Re decides to Spare mankind o Sakhmet though enjoyed killing mankind o Re sends for ochre from the south and it is added to beer to make it look like beer o Sakhmet was delighted from seeing the sea of blood and was drinking it o She got drunk then was unable to realize who was mankindSelections from the pyramid textPyramid of Unis aka Unas or Wenis has the first collection ofPyramid Texts oMagical spells to help the soul of the dead king on the journey into the next worldOld Kingdom royal funerary inscriptions ooldest collection of Egyptian religious and mythological texts Simpson p 247 Carved on the walls inside the last pyramid of the 5th Dynasty King Unis and those of the 6th Dynasty in the later 3rd millennium BCEThey were meant to ensure the immortality of the deceased king in the afterlife and werent meant to explain religion or myth o Often meanings are symbolic rather than literal oBut we can still learn much from themPT Utterance 214 A Spell for Ascension o Unis is in the company of the sun god Re o Unis takes up the power of HorusThe cobra uraeus is a symbol of royalty and divinity o Unis becomes a mighty akhPT Utterance 217 The Deceased Ascends to ReAtum o The akh of Unis comes to ReAtum as his son o Unis is an indestructible spirit and akh o Unis has the power of life and death oUnis has powers over the Nile flood Sanchika K thNov 12 2012 CLAA05 o Gods are sent in the 4 directions to declare Unis powers to the gods and their akhuPT Utterance 364 A Spell for Resurrection o Teti was the first king of the 6th Dynasty ca2323 BCE oTeti resurrected as Osiris called Osiris Teti oHorus ministers to Teti as to his father Osiris oReference to the drowning of Osiris Teti by Seth o Nepthys and Horus reunite the scattered limbs of Osiris Teti oOsiris Teti is placed in Nut sky goddess as a sarcophagus and tomb oNut is often painted on the inside of coffin lids o Osiris Teti identified with SokarA falcon funerary chthonic god Syncretised as PtahSokarOsiris PT Utterance 412 A Spell for Resurrection o Teti identified with Osiris o Tetis flesh ordered not to decay o He will be among the stars and constellations o Teti will be honoured like the crowns of Upper and o Lower Egypt and like the braids of the BedouinoThe gates of heaven and Duat underworld are opened for himMeaning he is able to come and go as he pleasesCompare with Mesopotamian gates of heaven and the underworld oTeti is the son of the Great Wild Cow of NekhebNekhbet goddess of Upper Egypt often a vulturePT Utterance 422 Transformation of the Deceased into an Akh o Pepi will become an akh oPepi is the successor to Osiris and rules from his throne oPepi will be lead by Nut sky and Re sun to the assemblies of heaven where he will sit on Osiris throne oHorus protects Pepi as he protects Osiris o Pepis ba will be among the akhu of the gods oName and immortalityYour name shall live on earthYour name shall be eternal on earthYou shall never perishNeither shall you be destroyed unto the ages of agesPT Utterance 473 The Deceased Crosses the River of Heaven o Re travels by daybarque to meet Horakhty Horus of the Horizon at the horizon oHorakhty travels by nightbarque to meet o Re at the horizon oPepi travels by both to meet both at the horizon oPepi joins other eloquent akhu there oPepi is reborn as Horus in the east oPepi will be one of the gods among themPT Utterance 570 The Deification of the Deceased o The gods are informed that Pepi is one of them oPepi is identified with Horus as the heir of Osiris o Pepi avoids death like Seth did
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