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University of Toronto Scarborough
Economics for Management Studies
Victor Yu

Chapter 14 14.1 - jovian: hydrogen rich, low density (formed in outer nebula), rich in hydrogen and helium - Jupiter 11x Earth’s diameter, 71% of planetary matter in solar system - Jupiter and Saturn called gas giants, but filled with liquid - Uranus and Neptune called ice giants, water in solid and liquid, blue coloured from small amonts of methane in atmosphere - Jovian planets core of rock and meter, no solid surface to walk - atmospheres marked by cloud belts parallel to equators - have extensive moon system which affects planetary ring systems, some active 14.2 Jupiter’s interior -1.3x denser than water -orbits sun at 5.2 AU in 11.9 yrs - sidereal rotation is 10 hrs, fastest spinning rate - interiors composed mostly of liquid metallic hydrogen - stirred by convection currents and spun by planet’s rapid rotation, drives dynamo effect and generates magnetic field, 20x stronger than Earth’s - magnetic field traps charged particles from solar wind in radiation belt - rocky core of heavy elements 4x hotter than surface of sun Atmosphere -magnetosphere responsible for auroras around magnetic poles - magnetic field and solar wind generate electric currents that flow around magnetic poles - rings discovered in 1979, Voyager I - belt zone circulation: atmospheric circulation where dark belts of bright zones encircle the planet parallel to equator - cloud layers are positioned at certain temperatures where ammonia, ammonium hydrosulphide and water can condense Ring -less than 1% as bright as saturn’s rings, reddish indicating ring is rocky material not ice - Forward scattering: optical property of finely divided particles to preferentially direct light in the original direction of the light’s travel -Roche limit: distance between a planet and satellite that can hold itself together by gravity - if inside roche limit, tidal forces overcome moon’s gravity and moon’s raw material cannot coalesce - rings lie inside roche limit - ring continuously supplied with new dust (pressure of sunlight and magnetic field alter its orbit, and dust is destroyed by radiation - moon confines rings, keep them from spreading outward, alter their shapes Moons - 4 larger moons (Galilean moons, discovered by Galileo), 60 smaller ones - Ganym
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