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[EESA10H3] - Final Exam Guide - Ultimate 29 pages long Study Guide!


Department
Environmental Science
Course Code
EESA10H3
Professor
Jovan Stefanovic
Study Guide
Final

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UTSC
EESA10H3
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Lecture 1 Introduction
-Environment is everything that affects a living organism
Models of gene-environment interaction
-Genetic makeup increases exposure to an environmental risk factor
- Genetic makeup increases susceptibility to an environmental risk factor
- Genetic makeup and environmental factor are independent risk factors
According to the WHO: “In its broadest sense, environmental health comprises those aspects
of human health, disease and injuries that are determined or influenced by factors in the
environment.”
-“This includes the study of both the direct and the indirect pathological effects of
various:
Chemical
Biological
Physical (Man-Made)
Housing,Land use,Transportation, Urban development
Chemical Hazards
e.g.Chemicals in air, water, soil, and food
Biological Hazards
e.g.Bacteria, viruses, parasites, allergens, poisonous animals
-Some animals spread biological hazards like viruses
Physical Hazard
E.g. Radiation, fires, tornados, hurricanes, volcanic eruptions, and earthquakes are Natural
Disasters not environmental Health hazards
Social or Behavioral Hazards
E.g. poor diet, smoking, drug use, drinking, and poverty are NOT environmental Health hazards
Genetic Traits
E.g. Health risks associated with the chromosomal defect that causes down syndrome are NOT
environmental health hazards
-We don't all fall ill to certain things because of our genetic makeup that can make us
more exposed to some of the hazards or prone to a disease
-Act independently
Core Concerns of Environmental Health
-Focus on chemical, physical, biological hazards
-Interactions with genetic traits and with social/behavioral stressors
-Emphasis on anthropogenic hazards
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-Much more than just pollution
-As branch of public health, the field of environmental health takes a population perspective
Key Themes
• We make the world we live in and we live in the world we make
• People living a modern Western lifestyle create, use, and dispose of lots of “stuff”
• In an ecosystem, nothing ever goes away
• Therefore, our “stuff” and its byproducts are transported and transformed, but they do
not disappear
• There has often been a lack of foresight in adopting new products and technologies
• The natural environment is globally connected; trade and travel are increasingly
globalized
-Transmitting diseases and such
• Global disparities in development and health are enormous
-The difference between developing and developed countries...rich and poor
• Western-style development is not sustainable at a global scale
-Large amounts of gases in air
-Atmosphere:CO2 increased 30% since the beginning of the Industrial revolution
-Geosphere:1/3 to 1/2 of the land surface has been transformed by human action
Biosphere
-Clear cutting forests
Industrialization
-Pollutants released in air
Overpopulation and Overconsumption
-The increasing number of people reduces the quality of environment
Health Effects of Pollution
-Combined...these factors cause illnesses
The health of other organisms can tell us a lot about our own health
No single factor is responsible:
Increase UV
Traces of toxic chemicals
Infections (fungi and bacteria)
Predators
-Environmental factors are responsible for 25 % of all preventable diseases
-In developing countries diarrhea and respiratory infections are heading the list
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