Finals Essay Question #9 - Gillham

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Andre Sorensen

Gillham (2002) Chapter 14: Regionalism -to prevent leapfrogging of suburbanization across local communities borders, Growth Boundaries need to be considered over a whole metropolitan area -regional transportation decisions can work most effectively when made in conjunction with regional land use decisions -during the mid-20 century, the nations (USA) centres that were its main economic units, and now those city centres have grown into todays vast metropolitan area ANNEXATION: -as the nations cities have grown, many of them have engaged in a continuous struggle over how to manage their rapidly increasing areas -to address problems brought on by rapid extensions, New York choose to annex a large part of its surrounding area in 1898, then others cities followed, Boston, St, Louis Annexation: adding unincorporated land to the city and Consolidation: absorbing adjacent th municipalities) was a common method of handling urban growth in 19 century ELASTIC CITIES: -the twelve largest US cities that showed population gains between 1950 and 1980 were those that expanded their geographical areas, for example Houston -many cities such as New York have long since outgrown their 19 century boundaries and annexing adjacent communities is no longer a viable option -David Rusk: cities that are capable of annexation and are still growing are among the most successful in the nation, he called these cities Elastic Cities in that they are able to change their physical shape and accommodate growth -some of these elastic cities have managed to save themselves from some of the dire fiscal problems of suburbanization by acquiring their suburban tax base ELASTICITY AND SUBURBANIZATION: -when it comes to density, it is apparent that annexation along doesnt seem to be doing much to change the rapidly spreading, auto-dependant and low-density patterns of development -annexation is not enough more cities, some state laws do not even provide for annexation 1 are then forced to look for other methods of regional approach to solving problems REGIONALISM: -Regionalism or metropolitanism, has recurred from time to time as a possible solution to the urban ills of rapid extension of American metropolitan areas CONTEMPORARY REGIONALISM: -regionalism has been gaining popularity in some respects due to the cycle of growth and change, because development has mushroomed during the 1990s resulting in increasing concerns about sprawl -other alternatives to annexation and consolidation are: organization of powerful new metropolitan governments, the creation of new regional services districts REGIONAL GROWTH CONTROL: -local and county efforts at urban-growth control, though effective at small communities, dont solve regional sprawl problems -the question of solving housing expense may be solved through the Urban Growth Boundary (UGB) with a strong affordable housing program -A UGB can cover an entire metropolitan area, including multiple cities and towns, if properly planned such a technique can be used to manage and direct growth on a regional basis, thus limiting sprawl development -but a regional UGB cannot be implemented by existing local governments unless a group of localities agrees to work together in a formal process REGIONAL COORDINATION OF TRANSPORATION AND LAND USE: -the primary transportation burden will continue to fall upon the nations roadway system, and it is recognized that congestion is a major concern and needs to be addressed -if transit is to work, we need to understand that a change in land-use is needed -compact developments are a start, coordinated land-used and transportation programs and programs that make use of existing urban programs, EX Portland is doing this and made possible through there regional government 2
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